Common Zhiryanka - insectivorous plant: description

Anonim

Common Zhiryanka - a plant of the genus Pinguicula. Perennial and insectivorous representative of the flora. It belongs to the family of bladderworms and is the only representative of this family that has a root system, albeit a very small one.

The name of the plant was due to the fleshy and oily leaves, which look very juicy and covered with multiple glands. And from Latin pinguis translates as "fat." It is a relic of the ice age.

Botanical description

The main distinguishing feature of common zhiryanki is the presence of roots, which other members of the family do not have.

The rosette is formed by the leaves. The leaf surface itself is covered with multiple glands. Part of the glands secretes sugar mucus. This liquid is the bait for insects. Another part of the glands is responsible for digesting the food caught, by producing special enzymes.

The glands on the leaf of the plant are about 25 thousand per 1 centimeter. But each of them performs its function only once in the entire life of the Zhiryanka. At the moment when most glands are already incapacitated, the leaf dies completely.

The leaves of the plant have a green color and an elliptical shape. Length - from 2 to 4 centimeters. The width at the base is about 0.6 centimeters, at the end goes to expand to 2 centimeters.

Flowers are arranged on long peduncles, solitary. Bud colors may be pink, purple or blue. White flowers are very rare. The fruits are presented in the form of boxes.

Image

Spread

The plant Zyryanka has a fairly extensive area of ​​growth. For this reason, there are species resistant and unstable to frost.

The plant is found on the territory of Japan and Europe, in the Andes and North America, on the Asian continent.

Zhiryanka prefers peatlands and simply wetlands, that is, those places where there are a lot of insects. However, when draining (artificial or natural), the plant dies very quickly, so almost all habitats of Zhiryanka are protected.

On the territory of Russia, there are about 6-7 species. The most common form is common zhiryanka, it can be seen in northern latitudes. And in the Urals growing alpine species. In Mexico, there are only two types: plaster and rounded.

Image

Way of feeding

The plant feeds on flying insects, which attracts with its sweet mucus on the sheets. If the prey is large enough, the leaves are slightly curled so that the victim cannot escape.

In one season, the plant is able to absorb several hundred flying insects.

Plant protection

Due to low environmental adaptability and competitiveness, the plant is listed in the Red Book of many regions. In particular, since 2005, it has been protected in the Chelyabinsk Region, since 1981 - in Belarus. It is also protected at the level of legislation in the territory of Ukraine, Latvia and Poland.

Varieties

The most common species is common Zyryanka, it grows even in the tundra and mountain ranges of the northern hemisphere. In the same latitudes, the alpine species grows, also prefers the mountain forest belt, but where there is a lot of moisture.

Zhiryanka gypsum and round-split grows in Mexico. The Moran variety is found in Guatemala and Mexico.

The flat-leaf view is rather rare and grows only along the northern part of the Gulf of Mexico, from Louisiana to Florida.

Vallisnerylistnaya zhiryanka grows only in southern Spain. The leaves of the plant are more like lawn grass. Since 1997, is on the verge of extinction.

In Cuba, spreading look is common. A violet-flowered species is presented only on the Florida peninsula. A characteristic feature of the plant - the flowers are white, and purple inside.

Crystal fatty found in Cyprus and Turkey.

In many regions, these insectivorous flowers have completely disappeared, due to the development of peat deposits and the drainage of wetlands.

Image

Reproduction, care at home

Unlike most predatory flowers, the zhiryanka adapts well to residential conditions, although it requires a lot of attention in the process of caring for it.

The plant at home should be in a dark room, very far from the central heating. In no case, the flower should not fall into direct sunlight, otherwise it may die.

In summer, it is necessary to maintain the air temperature at + 28 degrees, but not higher. In the winter season, Zhiryanka tolerates temperature well at + 10-15 degrees.

The main condition for plant survival at home is high humidity. It is best to keep the flower in a special terrarium, that is, a closed pot. Regular flowering will signal that the plant feels great.

The very same ground for Zhiryanka should always be moderately wet, it is best to water through the pan. Watering the plant is better with distilled water or boiled, that is, it should be soft and free of salt impurities.

The growth of this representative flora is very slow.

Image

Transplantation and reproduction

As well as the majority of predatory flowers, the zhiryanka does not need change. With the onset of the first cold, the old plant dies, and instead wintering buds are formed. They are the spring and will be a new plant.

To get a new plant, you can use the seeds. They are simply placed in a moist soil, and within a couple of weeks a new plant will grow. Also, during winter preparations, it is possible to divide the wintering buds into tubers, and in the spring, plant them in different pots.

Diseases

Due to the fact that the plant feeds on insects, it does not affect any disease, because the flower simply digest them. Fat zhiryanka can only because of improper care. Excessive watering often leads to the formation of rot.

Image

Benefit and harm

Many people do not know, but Zhyryanka from ancient times used as a means of cold and cough. Traditional medicine even offers this plant as an effective remedy for severe asthma.

And the people of Northern Scandinavia prepare from the plant a dish called "tehelk", which consists of enzymes of the plant leaves and milk.

To date, not a single negative episode associated with use in the treatment or nutrition of a person has been observed.

So do not be afraid to start this plant at home: it is not only unique, but also very beautiful, especially during the flowering period.

Interesting Articles

Far East: development prospects (general description)

Imaginary is ... True and Imaginary Values

Actor Francois Arno: the best films. Biography, personal life, photo

What is the thermohaline circulation of the oceans?