- Irkutsk region
- general characteristics
- Dry log
- Geological characteristic
- Slyudyanskoe field
- What is remarkable deposit?
- Malobistrin deposits of lapis lazuli
- Area problems
Today we will talk about the mineral resources of the Irkutsk region. We will consider the main deposits, and also discuss what this territory is rich in in general. For a start, let's get to know this part of Russia better
The population of the region as of 2016 was approximately 2.5 million people. At the same time, it is important that the coefficient of natural and migration increments is negative. As for the economy, it must be said that the Irkutsk region occupies a leading place in the Trans-Urals. The population lives mainly due to the active sale of services. The industry is based on non-ferrous metallurgy, pulp and paper, forestry and woodworking industries, mechanical engineering, and electric power industry. It should be noted that the Irkutsk region is a region with an industrial type of economy. The Trans-Siberian Railway is the main transport artery of the region. An important place is occupied by road transport. Since this area is rich in rivers, water transport has reached a large development. Air traffic is also well developed.
The territory of the region occupies the southern part of the Central Siberian Plateau. Here is the Baikal and Primorsky ranges, Patom and Stanovoe highlands. In the southwestern part are the mountain ranges of the Eastern Sayan. Also the territory of the region is occupied by lake Baikal.
Minerals of the Irkutsk region are represented by a wide variety. It produces oil, coal, natural gas, gold, iron ore, rock salt, black and brown coal, clay, gypsum, kaolin, and mica. Coal in the Irkutsk region is mined from three main deposits, which we will mention below. At the same time, the mining industry accounts for only 11% of the entire industrial structure of the region. In the structure of the industry itself, the main place is shared by three resources:
- gold in the Irkutsk region occupies about 47%;
- coal - 28%;
- iron ore (18%).
The estimated oil production is 2.6 billion tons. Iron ore in the Irkutsk region is represented by insignificant deposits. Coyne resources are represented in Poymenno-Cheremshansky, Pribaikalsky and Irkutsky regions. Most of all, they are mined in the Mugunsky, Azeisky and Cheremkhovsky fields in the Irkutsk basin.
The geography of the Irkutsk region allows you to mine the most diverse fossils. Valuable is a marble of different colors. In the Irkutsk region, you can find it in almost any color. Before mica ceased to play a key role in the Slyudyansk deposit, it was marble that took its place. The walls of the Novosibirsk Metro are lined with Irkutsk marble, as well as the Kharkiv metro station called Proletarskaya and the Moscow metro station Ulitsa 1905 and Barrikadnaya.
To date, a lot of applications has marbled limestone. Mining it in the territory of the Irkutsk region of JSC "Quarry Pass".
There are also unused raw materials in this territory: refractory clays and phosphates. There is an apatite deposit just 3 km from the city. According to forecasts, there are about 90 million tons. Such a deposit can be an excellent basis for the production of phosphate fertilizers. Today it belongs to the reserve and is located in the water protection zone.
4 km from Slyudyanka there is a rich deposit of refractory clays. It was opened only at the beginning of the last century, when the construction of the Circum-Baikal Railway began. Before the revolution, clay was mined here in order to produce refractory bricks, but in 1927 the deposit was closed.
The deposit is the largest in terms of gold ore content in Russia. Incredibly, it alone accounts for 28% of all mineral reserves in Russia. Sukhoy Log was recently assessed (in winter of 2016) and it was found that reserves at the site are estimated at 1.53 thousand tons of silver and 2.7 thousand tons of gold. But here are their problems. So, huge reserves exist on the background of low gold grade in ore. For a long time this was the main and serious problem in the development of the field. More recently, in the winter of 2017, Sukhoi Log was transferred to SL Gold for development.
It is possible to find a deposit at the Lensky gold ore district (central part). The distance from it to the regional center is 850 km. The nearest railway station is Taksimo.
Sukhoi Log was opened in 1961. Just at this time, the whole territory was actively investigated. Many institutes (TsNIGRI, VNIIHT, MISiS, etc.) conducted research activities to search for ore. At the beginning of the summer of 1986, a whole complex of works was carried out to prepare the studies. In 2007–2008, a comprehensive reassessment of reserves was carried out, the results of which were discussed above. In the early 1990s, the company received a license "Lenzoloto".
Gold ores are interspersed with carbonates and sulphides. The deposit itself is divided into 4 sections: Central, Sukholozhsky, North-Western and Western, based on the size, position and conditions of ore occurrence. The wealth of the latter has not yet been studied, as it is only beginning to be developed. The richest in ore is Sukholozhsky region, which contains about 88% of all rocks.
The thickness of the ore body ranges from 15 m. It is represented by a layer-like deposit. The ore body has no natural boundaries and no exits to the surface. There are areas of weakly gold-bearing rocks. The chemical composition of the ore is not very different from the host rocks.
In 2006–2007, a laboratory study was conducted using photometric separation. The goal was a revaluation of reserves, repeatedly mentioned above. The main result of the study was that a pre-enrichment technology was proposed. This, in turn, repeatedly improves the quality of the product.
Slyudyansk marble deposit is located in the southern part of Baikal. It affects the northern spurs of the Khamar-Daban range. According to the administrative division, the Slyudyanskoe field is located on the territory of the Irkutsk region in the Slyudyansky district. The history of this place dates back to the XVIII century. The first studies conducted by scientists on the wealth issues of the Slyudyansky district began in 1832. Three different rock complexes were established - the Mesozoic, Paleozoic, and Archaea. Since the basalts are underdeveloped, the area is rich mainly in rocks of the Precambrian complex. The deposit is rich in phlogopite, lapis lazuli, granite pegmatites. The main wealth of the deposit is marble. It occupies 61% of the territory.
Minerals in the Irkutsk region are difficult to imagine without a “natural mineralogical museum”. This is the name of the field under discussion. Such fame brought him the discoveries of crystals of amazing shapes and sizes. Many color minerals from this region have received their own names.
What is remarkable deposit?
There is no better place for mineralogists and petrographers than the Slyudyanskoe deposit. The huge heights of the mountains, which are close to Baikal, create a beautiful view. Deep canyons and ravines with sudden differences in height create an excellent environment for such natural phenomena as spurs, mudflows, landslides, landslides, snow and stone avalanches.
As early as 1935, the talented mineralogist P. Kalinin created the very first summary of the Slyudanka minerals. Until today, it remains the only and very detailed. Links to this work can be found in many Russian and foreign thematic publications.
In the 50s of the last century, the Pereval marble deposit was developed at Slyudanka. To this day, the quarry operating there remains the main supplier of raw materials for cement production.
Malobistrin deposits of lapis lazuli
The field got its name, as it is located along the Malaya Bystraya river, which is a small Irkut tributary. The official opening date is considered to be 1851, and the discoverer is G. Permikin. The field has two lapis lazuli-bearing "veins". They consist of contiguous puff lenses on which lapis lazuli nests are located. In length, lazuritic calciphyres reach 140 m. Lazurite mineralization is manifested in several forms:
- slight impregnations of lapis lazuli in marble rocks;
- azure streaks and crusts in granites;
- nodules and nests in silicate-carbonate shell.
Despite the fact that the overall level of development of the region is quite high, there are significant problems. In the first they relate to the level and duration of life of the population. However, for the next 10-15 years, it is planned to emerge from the crisis due to the development and development of the Kovykta gas and condensate field, which should raise the economy to a new level. There are significant environmental problems in the region that are associated with seismicity against the background of developed industry. Do not underestimate the environmental problems of Baikal.
Summing up the article, I would like to say that the mineral resources of the Irkutsk region are quite diverse. Despite the fact that the region is far from the peak of its economic development, it has great potential for development. However, great attention should be paid to the ecological situation, which is very deplorable in the region.