- Where is the river Zbruch?
- The border of two empires
- Zbruch River: photos and description
- Sights along Zbruch
Zbruch - a small river with a large and interesting history. Its picturesque valley is oversaturated with various monuments of antiquity - castles, palaces, wooden churches and stone churches. In this article you will find a detailed description of the river Zbruch. In addition, we describe the main attractions located on its shores.
Where is the river Zbruch?
Zbruch - watercourse in Western Ukraine, belonging to the Dniester basin (left tributary). The source of the river is located on the slopes of the Avratinsky Upland, near the village Shchasnovka. Then Zbruch flows strictly to the south, cutting the hilly ridges of Podolia (see map below). The largest tributaries: Samchik, Male, Alder Stream, Rotten, Grabarka, Bovvanets, Kizya. The Zbruch River flows into the Dniester in the vicinity of the ancient village of Okopy.
Regarding the name of the river, researchers put forward several hypotheses. According to one of them, the hydronym “zbruch” is derived from the name of the local tribe “boran”, mentioned in ancient chronicles. Another version relates it to the dialect word "zbruchi", which is widely used in this region. So the locals call the marshland.
The border of two empires
The strictly meridional orientation of the Zbruch valley largely determined its historical role. Back in 1385, the river delimited Galicia and Podolia - the lands of Poland and Lithuania, respectively. At the end of the 18th century, the Zbruch River became the border between two powerful empires - the Austro-Hungarian in the west and the Russian in the east.
In the stormy and intense period of 1917-1922. The rival forces more than once crossed the river - Austro-Hungarian, Russian, German, Ukrainian troops. But in the end, the water border has not disappeared anywhere - this time it divided the Second Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The status of the border river Zbruch lost only in September 1939, when the Red Army invaded Poland. Today it divides two regions of Ukraine - Ternopil and Khmelnitsky. Nevertheless, to this day, the river is a kind of boundary (conditional, of course) between the "eastern" and "western" mentalities.
The most obvious contrast between the two shores can be observed in the area of two settlements - Volochisk (Khmelnitsky region) and Podvolochisk (Ternopil region). If the first is a typical “Soviet” town with a faceless and gray architecture, then the second has a rich architectural heritage of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Zbruch River: photos and description
The total length of the river is 247 kilometers, the catchment area is 3350 square meters. km The width of Zbruch varies within 8-12 meters, the depth varies from 1.5-2 to 4 meters. The channel is quite meandering, especially in the lower reaches. The slope is large enough for a flat river and is 0.8 m / km. The average speed of water flow in the channel is 0.57 m / s.
The river Zbruch flows in a wooded area. Three trees dominate here - hornbeam, oak and ash. In the upper reaches of the river valley is weakly expressed in relief, the banks are gently sloping and plowed. In the middle course, it takes the form of a V-shaped canyon with rather steep slopes and numerous outcrops of travertine rocks, often forming small grottoes and canopies that hang over the water. In hard-to-reach areas of the valley on the banks of the Zbruch rare species of herbaceous plants grow.
Food Zbrucha mixed, but with a predominance of snow. Rainfall floods are quite frequent in summer. The river bed is covered with ice only in early January, with the exception of certain rapids.
Sights along Zbruch
In the middle reaches of the river in 1990, the Medobory natural reserve was created. Its main attraction is the mountain Bohit - one of the most famous places in Eastern Europe. It was here that the pagan temple was located, where the famous Zbruchany idol stood. Today, the statue is kept in Krakow in the Archeological Museum.
On the banks of Zbruch many architectural, archaeological, historical and cultural monuments are preserved:
- The ruins of the castle of the XVI century in the village of Toki.
- Remains of a stone fortress in Satanov.
- The wooden church of John the Theologian in the village of Green.
- Border Soviet colonnade in Gusyatin.
- Assumption Church (1719) in Skala-Podolsk.
- Nicholas Church in Zbruchansky (XIV century) - the oldest religious building of the Ternopil region.
In the mouth of Zbruch there is an old village Okopy. It was here until 1939 that the borders of three states converged - Poland, the USSR and Romania. According to the famous writer Boris Antonenko-Davidovich, “the rooster in the Trenches sang into three powers.” This fact today is reminiscent of the obelisk with a weather vane in the form of a rooster on top.
The river itself is a popular place for kayaking tourist rafting. The main advantage of Zbruch is that it is suitable for beginners and inexperienced rafters. On the banks of the river there are many recreational areas.