Where do bison live? On which mainland, in which country?

Anonim

Even just the sight of these animals is filled with horror, a trembling runs through the body. This is a huge bison. The ancient Indians ranked these individuals as sacred. Their population today is small. About this amazingly strong animal, about where the bison lives (in which zone of the planet), about its features can be found in this article.

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They differ in surprisingly volumetric size and large massive physique. They are similar in appearance with bison. And in nature, even with the latter interbreed with each other, in connection with this they are united in one species.

Description

Where does the bison live, on which mainland do these amazingly large animals live?

Before we figure this out, consider what they are.

Bison has striking gaze dimensions: height at withers - up to 2 meters, body length - up to 3 meters. The weight of males is about 1.2 tons. These are the largest terrestrial animals. Bison females, like most animals, are significantly inferior to male relatives. Their body weight is about 700 kg.

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The thick body of a bison has a grayish brownish tinge. Their color can vary from light red to dark brown and almost black tones. Calves are born with a yellow coat, but over time it gets dark. Light (almost white) color bison are quite rare.

The coat is longer and darker in bison on the chest, head and beard, and shorter in the rest of the body. This feature gives the appearance of the animal even more volume and danger.

The bison's head is rather massive, with a broad forehead. Thick and short horns diverging to the sides at the very base of the head, bend inward at the ends. This animal has narrow and small ears, a massive and short neck, large dark eyes.

The most characteristic feature of the bison is an unusual hump, which is located on its nape.

Where does bison live?

The continent on which bison live is North America. For a long time, bison (or buffalo) lived in the territories of almost the whole of North America. But today, this population exists only in the northern and western parts of the river. Missouri.

Very few populations of forest bison remained. These individuals live mainly in the most deaf and swampy forests of the Buffalo, Birch river basins (at the Athabasca lakes and the Great Slave) and Peace.

Today, bison are grown for commercial purposes. Their number is about 500 thousand heads (most of the steppe bison). About 4, 000 North American private ranches are used for breeding.

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Approximately 30 thousand individuals live in the wild, and they, as a species on the verge of extinction, are listed in the Red Book.

Species, subspecies

In nature today, there are two subspecies: forest (forest bull) and steppe. They differ in the coat of fur and features of the body structure. Where do the bison of these species live? And how do they differ?

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Steppe bison is a large ungulate weighing up to 700 kg. It is slightly smaller in weight and size than the forest. A rather large head has a large shock of thick wool between large horns and the same thick beard. His hump rises above the bottoms of the forelegs. One of the distinguishing features of the steppe bison is a pronounced throat, which is extended over the chest. Thick fur coat has a light brown color.

The forest bison, as noted above, exceeds the steppe in size. But his head is slightly smaller and framed with a dark bang, his horns are long and thin. He also has a rudimentary throat and a hump. Auburn color forest bison wool is not very thick. The weight of the male often exceeds 900 kg. The fur of this species is darker and warmer.

Habitats

Forest bison first became known at the end of the 19th century. Scientists believe that their ancestors were primitive bison.

Where do bison live? And where did they live? The beginning of this genus was laid once by the wild bulls (genus Leptobos), which lived in the Pliocene (about 35000 years ago) in India. Today, there is a hypothesis that they spread to the north in wide steppes and evolved into steppe bison.

From the expanses of Siberian bison along the terrestrial passage that existed at that time, it came to North America. This version appeared in connection with the presence in 1979 in Alaska (about. Yukon) fossil specimen of this bull.

And where do the buffaloes live (in which country)? In addition to Canada and the United States, reintroduction of American American bison is currently being made back to Alaska. Their very first batch of 53 individuals was brought to these sites in 2008.

But, despite the efforts made to save the population, the future of buffalo remains in question. The dangers to their lives: various diseases, massively affecting cattle, and mixing them with steppe bison, which is undesirable.

Animal behavior

Where do bison live at different times of the year? They lead a nomadic lifestyle. In the summer they live on the spacious northern plains, and in the winter migrate to the southern areas. In those days, when there were many of them, they walked in huge inspiring herds (thousands of individuals), occupying vast territories. Moreover, they chose the route themselves, and he was associated with watering.

During periods of such migrations, there were cases that these herds blocked the movement of trains, steamers stopped.

And how do they behave with their relatives where the herds live? In essence, these animals are gregarious. Their family organization is in many ways similar to the bison habits. Females and males outside the breeding season are kept apart.

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After the birth of calves, females with their cubs form groups of up to 30 individuals. Males usually graze alone, but it happens in bachelor herds (up to 15 individuals). Compared with the past, bison form clusters on pastures consisting of only a few hundred individuals.

At night, the buffaloes sleep, but their sleep is short. They graze around the clock. In general, this is a calm and balanced animal, but in rare cases (with anxiety) they are able to show aggression. Despite the enormous weight of the body, the bison can develop a great speed (about 50 km / h), and during the run they make sounds (snoring or grunting).

Conclusion

Where the bison live, we found out. But it should be remembered that a long time ago in the vast expanses of the middle section of the northern American continent, their total number was approximately 60 million.

Of course, it is impossible to return that number, but with certain common efforts of people it is possible to at least stop the decline in the number of such an exotic animal and even increase it a little.

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