Is plum a berry or a fruit? Is a plum a tree or shrub?

Anonim

Plum - a fruit plant from the vast family of Pink (Rosaceae). Many well-known fruit and berry crops, such as apple, cherry, cherry, apricot, peach, strawberry, and raspberry, belong to the same systematic group. We will understand the question that most often sounds like this: "Is plum a berry or a fruit?" There is nothing surprising in the fact that many are confused in concepts.

Plum - berry or fruit?

Among the fruit trees plum occupy an honorable place, because since ancient times, people grow it for the sake of harvest. Prepare from plum, blackthorn, cherry plum sweet dishes, sauces and spirits. Plum is a tree or shrub in height from 1 to 6 m. All groups of varieties and wild species are high-yielding plants.

Fruit - odnosostochkovaya drupe - is formed on the site of the flower after fertilization. Until maturation, the pericarp remains solid for a time, colored green. With the accumulation of nutrients, the fruit becomes more juicy, and inside it, in a special nest, a solid bone with a seed is formed.

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What are the fruits?

The term “fruit”, which did not take root in scientific use, came from Latin to Russian for a very long time. But in medicine, dietology, cooking and in everyday life, the word is very popular, although not everyone can interpret it correctly. What is the difference between fruit and berries? Plum refers to which of these two groups?

It is considered that the fruit is the same as the fruit, because this is how the word fructus is translated from Latin. Other edible parts of plants, and the plants themselves, can still belong to such economic groups as vegetables, cereals, nuts. Among the fruits, there are two groups of juicy fruits: drupes and berries. They differ in the number of seeds and a number of other signs.

We will understand thoroughly: plum is a fruit or a berry in reality. It is necessary to distinguish scientific terms and economic definitions. Botany plant fruit types differ in the consistency of the pericarp and the number of seeds. There are 4 main groups - dry and juicy, single-seeded and multi-seeded.

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Do plums have what type of fruit?

Drugs - plums, cherries, apricots - are juicy, contain one seed. Berries are also juicy, but multi-seeded fruits. They arise from one or more carpels. Distinguish entirely from fleshy berry with thin skin, like grapes, and leathery berry, in which the pericarp is thick, like an orange. So is a plum a fruit or a fruit? The second concept is more extensive and includes the first, that is, berries are a type of fruit (s).

Representatives of botanical science, without hesitation, will determine: plum is a berry or fruit. Seeing the juicy fruits of plums and grapes, they will say that there is a drupe and a berry in front of them. A nutritionist, a salesman, an ordinary person will explain that both are fruits. Everyone will be right in their reasoning and conclusions. So the plum is not a berry. It should be recalled here that berries can also be attributed to fruits, which in economic activity, everyday life is not considered a mistake. After all, all this - the fruits (lat. Fructus).

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Is plum trees or shrubs?

In appearance, plants can be attributed to different life forms. The main groups of them are the following groups: trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, lianas. Life forms are a kind of adaptation to the conditions of existence.

After we have easily understood the problem outlined above - the plum is a berry or a fruit - it will be more difficult to answer the question of life form. In appearance, plants belonging to the genus Plum, are low trees and shrubs. The most common type - home garden plum. In the wild, the tree is found in the Caucasus.

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A variety of species of the subgenus Prunus

Until now, in the forests, along the beams and ravines, there are wild plums, but most of the species belonging to this subgrowth have long been cultivated. They give rich yields of medium and large fruits of different colors with a characteristic flat bone inside. Their length usually exceeds the thickness by 1.5 times, the diameter - from 1–3 cm. New varieties have been developed, giving large fruits up to 8 cm in size, sweet in taste or sourish. Common species in Eurasia:

- Home garden - the usual form for central Russia.

- Thorny, thorns, blackthorn - a small, very thorny shrub with blue fruits.
- Splayed, cherry plum - a tree that reaches a height of 8 m. In the wild form is found in the Caucasus and Central Asia.
- Ussuriyskaya - wildly lives in Primorye and is cultivated for the sake of fruits in Eastern Siberia.
- Chinese - grown in China, Japan, Korea. Fruits are sweet and sour, are widely used in cooking and winemaking.
- Pissardi - decorative tree with beautiful pink petals and dark red foliage. Used in landscape design.

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At the sight of a blackthorn bush, bewilderment arises: is it really a drain? Berry or fruit - its dark blue small fruit? Cherry plum also astonishes with its fruiting. Although this tree looks like a plum, the color of its rich harvest is unusual - red and yellow (less often purple and blue fruits are found).

Useful qualities of plums

People use the fruits of wild and cultivated plants for food, for processing into juices, jams, jams, liqueurs, as a filling for baking, as a medicinal raw material. Home plum has long been grown for juicy stone farms with a bluish bloom. Homemade plum fruits contain:

  • carbohydrates (fructose, glucose);
  • vitamins C, A, P, group B;
  • organic acids;
  • tannins;
  • trace elements;
  • pectins.

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Preparations from the pulp of fruits and plum seeds are used in folk and official medicine. Prunes are used in dietary, confectionery production. Plum blooms early and abundantly, even before the leaves fully bloom. Trees and shrubs look very elegant, valued in landscape design.

Traditionally, in the XX century, two groups of varieties were distinguished as part of the species - Hungarian and Renclody. The first are represented by trees and shrubs with blue-violet rounded or elongated fruits. Renklodies often have spherical greenish fruits. Now the main direction is the breeding of stunted subspecies, interspecific crossing and getting hybrids, for example, plums and apricots.

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