Noise pollution. Noise pollution

Anonim

Among the effects of the environment emit noise pollution, which is rated as one of the most harmful to humans. All people have long lived surrounded by sounds, there is no silence in nature, although loud sounds are also very rare. The rustle of foliage, the chirping of birds and the rustling of the wind cannot be called noise. These sounds are good for humans. And with the development of technical progress, the problem of noise has become urgent, which brings many problems to people and even leads to diseases.

Although the sounds do not damage the environment and affect only living organisms, it can be said that noise pollution has become an environmental problem in recent years.

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What is sound?

The human hearing aid is very complex. Sound is a wave oscillation transmitted through air and other components of the atmosphere. These vibrations are perceived first by the eardrum of the human ear, and then transmitted to the middle ear. Sounds pass through 25 thousand cells before being realized. They are processed in the brain, so if they are very loud, they can lead to big health problems. The human ear is able to perceive sounds in the range from 15 to 20, 000 vibrations per second. The lower frequency is called infrasound, and the higher frequency is called ultrasound.

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What is noise

There are few loud sounds in nature, they are mostly quiet, favorably perceived by man. Noise pollution occurs when sounds merge and exceed permissible limits in intensity. Sound power is measured in decibels, and the noise of more than 120-130 dB already leads to serious disorders of the human psyche and affects the state of health. Noise has anthropogenic origin and increases with the development of technical progress. Now even in country houses and in the country it is difficult to hide from him. Natural natural noise does not exceed 35 dB, and in the city a person faces constant sounds of 80-100 dB.

Noise background above 110 dB is considered unacceptable and very unhealthy. But more and more often you may encounter him on the street, in the store and even at home.

Noise pollution sources

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The most harmful effects of sounds on a person in large cities. But even in suburban settlements, you can suffer from noise pollution caused by working technical devices with your neighbors: a lawn mower, a lathe, or a music center. The noise from them may exceed the maximum permissible norms of 110 dB. And yet the main noise pollution occurs in the city. The source of it in most cases are vehicles. The greatest intensity of sounds comes from highways, subways and trams. The noise in these cases can reach 90 dB.

Maximum permissible sound levels are observed during takeoff or landing of an aircraft. Therefore, with the wrong layout of settlements, when the airport is close to residential buildings, noise pollution around it can lead to problems for people. In addition to traffic noise, the person is hampered by the sounds of construction, working climate control systems and radio advertising. And the modern man no longer hide from the noise, even in the apartment. Constantly turned on home appliances, TV and radio exceed the permissible sound level.

How sounds affect a person

The susceptibility to noise depends on a person’s age, state of health, temperament, and even gender. It is noticed that women are more sensitive to sounds. In addition to the general background noise, inaudible sounds such as infrasound and ultrasound also influence the modern person. Even short-term exposure can cause headaches, sleep disorders and mental disorder. The effect of noise on humans has been studied for a long time, and in ancient cities restrictions were imposed on sounds at night. And in the Middle Ages there was a penalty "under the bell", when a person was killed under the influence of constant loud noises. Now in many countries there is a law on noise, which protects citizens at night from acoustic pollution. But depressing effect on people is also the complete absence of sounds. A person loses working capacity and is under severe stress in a soundproof room. And the noise of a certain frequency, on the contrary, can stimulate the process of thinking and improve mood.

Noise damage to humans

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    Prolonged exposure to sounds of even low intensity can cause an increase in pressure and a disorder in the activity of the cardiovascular system.

  • Strong effect of noise pollution on brain activity. Constant noise causes aggressiveness, irritability, insomnia and depression of the central nervous system.
  • Prolonged noise damages the visual and vestibular apparatus. The higher the intensity of the sounds, the worse the person reacts to events.
  • Noise of about 90 dB leads to hearing loss, and more than 140 dB can cause rupture of the eardrum.
  • With prolonged exposure to intense noise at 110 dB, a person has a feeling of intoxication, similar to alcohol.

Impact of noise on the environment

  • Constant loud sounds destroy plant cells. Plants in the city quickly dry up and die, the trees live less.
  • With intense noise, bees lose their ability to navigate.
  • Dolphins and whales are cast ashore due to the strong sounds of working sonars.
  • Noise pollution of cities leads to the gradual destruction of structures and mechanisms.

How to protect against noise

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The peculiarity of acoustic effects on people is their ability to accumulate, and the person is exposed to noise. The nervous system suffers most. Therefore, the percentage of mental disorders is higher among people working in noisy industries. In young boys and girls who constantly listen to loud music, the hearing after a while decreases to the level of 80-year-olds. But despite this, most people do not realize the dangers of noise. How can you protect yourself? Personal protective equipment, such as ear plugs or headphones, is recommended. Soundproof windows and wall panels became widespread. We must try to use at home as little household appliances as possible. Worst of all, when the noise prevents a person from sleeping well at night. In this case, it must protect the state.

Noise law

Every fifth resident of a large city suffers from diseases associated with noise pollution. In houses located near major highways, the noise level is exceeded by 20-30 dB. People complain about the loud sounds made by construction, ventilation, enterprises, road works. Outside the city, residents are plagued by discos and noisy companies who rest in nature.

In order to protect people and allow them to sleep, in recent years, regional silence laws regulating the time during which loud sounds are not allowed are increasingly being adopted. On weekdays, it is usually the period from 10 pm to 6 am, and on weekends it is from 11 pm to 9 am. Violators are subject to administrative punishment and heavy fines.

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Noise pollution in the last decades becomes the most urgent problem of megalopolises. It is disturbing that hearing loss in adolescents and an increase in the number of mental illnesses in people working in noise-related industries.

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