Neighbors of Russia of the first and second orders. Neighboring states of Russia from the north, east, south and west

Anonim

At different times, Russia's neighbors were different. The largest country in the world has the largest number of states bordering it: 18 countries - poor and rich, weak and powerful, friendly and not so rich.

Unlike each other

The total length of the border with them is close to 70 thousand kilometers. History changed, some states became part of Russia, others left it. This is a mandatory process when changing the political system.

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Such neighbors of Russia as Abkhazia and South Ossetia are unrecognized republics; The United States and Japan have only water borders with a great power. 38 of the 85 subjects of the Russian Federation located along its borders adjoin one, two, or three states. The regions of Altai Krai (Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia) and the Pskov region (neighbors Estonia, Latvia, Belarus) are so rich in foreign neighbors.

Neighbors with a common border

All states located in close proximity are divided into first and second order neighbors. Norway, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Abkhazia, Georgia, South Ossetia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, North Korea and 2 countries with sea borders - the United States and Japan - they all refer to the concept of “first-order neighbors of Russia ". Very few synonyms for the word denoting a state bordering the country." And these names are subjective - Mezhak, pripolschik, scraper. At the time of the Warsaw Pact, the countries included in it could be called twin cities. The same applied to China and North Korea. It is not easy to explain which countries are neighbors of second order Russia. Without fear of tautology, we can say that these are the neighbors of the first, above-mentioned states. The land borders in this case are 22, and 2 are sea.

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The world's longest maritime borders

The largest country has the longest maritime borders in the world. A distance of almost 20, 000 kilometers is the northern outskirts of Russia, stretching along the shores of the seas of the Arctic Ocean. The second longest maritime boundary passes in the east, washed by the Pacific Ocean.

Neighbors in the south

Russia's southern neighbors are Mongolia, China, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, as well as Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In the south there is also the longest land border with Kazakhstan, the importance of which for our country is difficult to overestimate. The republic is ranked 9th in the world, and the first among the major countries that do not have access to the oceans. The capital is the newly rebuilt city of Astana. On the territory of the republic is the border between Europe and Asia. Located at the junction of two worlds, rich in fertile lands and mineral resources, the country absorbs all the best and is rapidly developing. Kazakhstan is part of the Customs Union, and in the full sense of the word justifies the concept of "close neighbors of Russia".

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Partner countries

Of course, China is a special neighbor for Russia, and, not only because of the projected economy of this country by the end of 2014 will be the first in the world. The country ranks first on the list of "Neighbors of Russia" in Asia and is a strategic partner of our country. Good-neighborly relations between Beijing and Moscow, without exaggeration, play a crucial role on the world stage and contribute to the establishment of a new world order. These two powers have a lot of internal contradictions and problems, and they are also better to overcome, using mutual experience.

Good relations with neighbors - state policy

For the Russian Federation it is very important to have good relations with all border countries. Their establishment and strengthening is public policy. Unfortunately, Russia's southern neighbors, such as Azerbaijan and Georgia, do not take a completely peaceful position. Mongolia and Russia live together for thousands of years in friendship and harmony. A picture of this relationship can serve as a remarkable film by N. Mikhalkov "Urga - the Territory of Love". China and Russia are not just close Mezhaki of this country, it is its only neighbors. Therefore, peace and understanding in this triune union is so important. It is no less important in its relations with the self-proclaimed South Ossetia and Abkhazia, who in general have a whole future connected only with Russia.

Northern neighbors

As noted above, the longest border of our state passes along the shores of the northern seas - the Laptev, Kara, East Siberian, White and Barents seas. The marginal sea of ​​the Arctic Ocean is located between Russia and Alaska, a semi-arches of the United States. Thus, Russia's northern neighbors are the countries located along the shores of the Arctic. These include Iceland, Norway, Denmark (Greenland), the United States of America and Canada.

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The Arctic Ocean had a lot of names. At different times, he was called the North, Scythian, Tatar. On Russian maps of the XVII-XVIII centuries, he also had several designations - Sea-Ocean, Arctic, Polar Sea, etc. He was named Hyperborean in 1650 as the geographer Varenius. The Far North has long been considered the birthplace of the god of cold winds, Boreas, and therefore the ocean has received the corresponding name. The prefix "hyper" refers to its size. It was on its shores that all the northern neighbors of Russia were located. even at the North Pole, which is located in the center of the Arctic Ocean (this name was adopted in 1935), the Russian flag is set. And Norway is both a northern and western border state.

Neighbors in the west

Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Ukraine and Belarus are Russia's western neighbors. The two of them, namely Lithuania and Poland, are bordered by a semi-ark (a territory that does not have a common border with the country but extends to the sea) - the Kaliningrad region. With all the countries on this list, except Belarus, which is a member of the Customs Union and is a good close neighbor, Russia was at war at various times. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, its former Baltic republics, despite their more than modest absolutely in all areas of opportunity, are unfriendly. But only income from tourists from Russia can significantly replenish their budget.

Russia is a good profitable neighbor

It is regrettable to state that not all of Russia's territorially close neighbors are its friends. History does not teach anything … As long as people do not fill their foreheads, stepping on the same rake, they still forget that “a thin world is better than a good war”; that the clear benefits of peaceful coexistence are being lost; that the post-war complexes are terrible, and entire nations are cured of them for a very long time afterwards; what is worth listening to the advice of their own visionaries.

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Russia is a great, original, rich country, and good relations with it can carry invaluable dividends to sensible neighbors.

Summing up

So, the western neighbors of Russia of the first order are Norway and Finland, Estonia and Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Ukraine and Belarus. Second order - Sweden, Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania.

The first-order southern neighbors are represented by the following countries: China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Abkhazia and South Ossetia. The countries of the second order are Moldova, Turkey and Iran. These include 4 former Soviet republics - Armenia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. As well as Afghanistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam and the Republic of Korea.

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In the east, Russia in the extreme northern and southern points has two first-order neighbors, the border with which passes by the sea - the United States and Japan.

Remains north. Here, the first order neighbor is Canada, and the second order is Mexico.

It turns out that Denmark and Iceland, although they are located on the shores of the Arctic Ocean, are not Russia's neighbors at all.

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