- History of the region
- UNESCO heritage
- Pechora-Ilychsky Reserve
- National Park "Yugyd va"
- Flora Komi
- Legends of the ancient land
All those who come to the Komi Republic for the first time are charmed by the northern beauty of these places. Thanks to the once adopted wise decision, 15% of the territory of this region are under state protection, as a result of which the virgin nature has been preserved, which civilization has not touched.
The reserves of the Republic of Komi are the pride of not only the locals, but also the country as a whole, since 70% of these places consist of taiga. In the era of industrialization, the destruction of forests was the norm, but their restoration was a long and expensive task. Thanks to this land, the unique flora and fauna peculiar to the northeastern European part of Russia has been preserved in the country.
History of the region
The Komi Republic was formed in 1921, although the lands themselves belonged to the Moscow principality from the XV century. This land is rich in natural attractions. Here are located:
- 78, 000 lakes originate such great rivers as the Volga, Ob, Pechora and Northern Dvina;
- mountains covered with forests;
- tundra with preserved ecosystem;
- Torre-Porre-Iz and Manpupunyor natural formations unique in their beauty.
But the main attraction is the virgin forests, which many scientists rightly call the lungs of Europe, since most of the territory untouched by people does not exist in this part of the world.
Once there were such peoples as Mansi, Khanty and Komi in these places. There are still preserved their ancient sites and temples. Also this area is known to all archaeologists of the world thanks to the settlement found in the upper reaches of the Pechora, which belonged to people of the Upper Paleolithic period. Before this discovery, scientists did not even imagine that the tribes could live so far to the north, because the climate is harsh, especially in winter.
Even today, the main problem of the protected area is the lack of roads, and in 1931, when the boundaries of the protected area were determined, mail, wages and provisions were delivered on bars and boats, and in winter - on skis.
Living conditions in Komi can be called harsh. There are only a few large cities, such as Syktyvkar, Vorkuta, Usinsk, Ukhta and Pechora, which constitute 5 urban districts, including 15 municipal districts. The average winter temperature here is -17 ⁰С, although a drop in temperature to -57 degrees is recorded.
The reserves of the Komi Republic are united into a single network called “Virgin forests of the region”. It includes the Yugyd va national park and the Pechora-Ilychsky reserve. Their lands can be divided into 3 zones:
- the territory of medium-altitude elevations, which include the Urals mountain ranges;
- the region from the slopes of High Parma in the west to the foot of the Ural range;
- The flat reserve part belongs to the Timan-Pechora province.
Since 1985, this entire territory has been included in the category “Biosphere Reserves of the Komi Republic”. The UNESCO list, which includes only a few such zones on the planet, united these lands, called the heritage of all mankind, and they are now under the protection of this international organization.
It was created on May 4, 1930 in the area between two rivers - the Pechora and the Ilycha, its right tributary. Initially, land occupied 1, 135, 000 hectares. Rivers became their natural frontier in the west and south. In the north, the reserve is bordered by the Kozhimy River, and in the east - with the Tyumen region.
It was extremely difficult to monitor the state of the forest and its borders at that time, as there were no roads, air transport and radio stations. Much later, they began to use helicopters and An-2 aircraft, on which in 4 hours you can fly around such a large area.
Only with the organization in 1978 of five forest districts, between which these lands were divided, their protection, borders and scientific study, did the territory take on the look that exists today.
The uniqueness that the Komi Republic represents in Europe (Pechoro-Ilych Reserve in particular) is that it is the only place that has preserved old-growth virgin forests. Representatives of the flora and fauna of Siberian and European species grow and live in them. Some of them are part of the International Red Book.
It was in this reserve that the world's first moose farm was discovered, contributing to an increase in the number of these animals and their distribution.
National Park "Yugyd va"
This park was founded in 1994, and it is located in the extreme north-eastern European part of Russia. It is here that there are unique archaeological finds, such as the Ust-Podcheremskaya ancient site, Podcheremsky treasure and others.
Above the park rises the highest peak of the Urals - People's Mountain (1895 m).
Reserves are not deprived, national parks of Komi (republic) as well as reservoirs, among which lakes are the most picturesque lakes Torgovoye, Okunevo and Long. Among the rivers are well known for their clear waters and abundance of fish Kozhim, Bolshaya Synya and others. They are inhabited by 23 species of fish, such as salmon, peled, chir and gold carp.
“Yugyd va” joined the “Virgin Komi Forests” association, and is also under the protection of UNESCO. Walking through its territory, you can find a white hare, reindeer, flying squirrel, ermine, wolf, fox, elk, white fox and many other inhabitants.
190 species of birds nest in the national park, 19 of which are rare and are listed in the Red Book of the region. These are osprey, golden eagle, gyrfalcon, peregrine falcon and others.
According to the latest data, published in 1980, the reserves of the Komi Republic are home to more than 1, 000 plant species, including 11 endangered and rare, such as lady's slipper, Helm minuartia, Ural fishery, which has been preserved only here in an amount of 400 copies. In the rest of Europe, this plant has long disappeared.
Forests are represented by pine forests, shrubs, such as dogrose, and on wetlands sphagnum weeds are next to blueberries and wild rosemary.
In fact, the reserves of the Republic of Komi have not been fully studied, and the plants are not fully classified. This suggests a huge scale and that scientists have a lot of work ahead. In order to facilitate their work, the Chernamsky Reserve (Komi Republic) was organized, whose main task is to improve the composition and quality of forest plantations, as well as their safety. Here is organized the collection and storage of seeds of the most rare or endangered species.
Legends of the ancient land
Of greatest interest to folklorists are the legends of the ancient Mansi people about the giants turned into stone idols by the holy old man the Urals. These boobies, as the locals call them, can be seen on the Manpupuner Plateau.
No less beautiful is the legend of the golden woman, which can be seen today - this is a glowing female figure, usually appearing against the dark peaks of the mountains. According to legend, this is the Mother of the World, bypassing their possessions.