Ecological rating of Russian cities. Ecology problems of the city

Anonim

Many of us at least once in our lives have heard about such a concept as the environmental rating of Russian cities. However, this is not surprising. After all, we all, regardless of age, marital status, degree of education and employment, would like to be proud of the clean environment and not worry about the future health of our children. That is why the ecology of the region is so important in the modern world. In this article we will try to discuss in detail this and some other issues.

Section 1. Ecological rating of Russian cities. General situation in the country

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Recently, more and more information is being revealed that testifies to the unfavorable environmental situation in our country. In addition, according to the results of the 20th century, more than 200 cities were declared uninhabitable due to the high level of air and water pollution.

It is sad that the result of the “Dirty Cities” all-Russian campaign, designed to improve the state of the environment, turned out to be insignificant, since the elimination of polluting waste was a minimal success. It turns out that the environmental problems of the city do not disappear, moreover, they are aggravated every day.

Industrial settlements are on the first place in the list of the most dangerous on the planet. So, for example, statistics show that in Russian Norilsk, about 90% of the diseases are associated with lung problems, which once again proves the depth of the problems with the environmental situation in industrial regions.

It also became known that the Norwegian side, concerned about the strong environmental pollution, recently allocated a rather large amount of money to replace the outdated equipment of one of the Nickel factories located on the Kola Peninsula.

Section 2. Three zones of the country's environmental tension

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Unfortunately, our green, rich and beautiful country can not be called environmentally friendly to live. The deplorable state of the environment in the state in some places reaches its critical value. As early as 1989, scientists compiled a special map of Russia with cities, reflecting the ecological situation at that time. The then USSR, and therefore our country, was divided into three zones according to the degree of contamination, which should be considered in more detail:

1. Catastrophic. This can not be attributed to the largest accumulation of radionuclides in Kyshtym Chelyabinsk region. It is unlikely that anyone will deny the extremely low environmental rating of Russian cities located in this area.

2. Crisis. It is associated with the vigorous activity of oil producing and processing plants, as well as industrial zones (Kalmykia, Arkhangelsk Region, Priangarie, Middle and Lower Volga region, and a number of other territories).

3. Moderately intense. Chernozem region, northwest of the European part of the country. The rating of environmentally friendly cities in Russia shows that it is in this area that the most favorable living is minimally associated with a health risk.

Section 3. Who is to blame?

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However, the “culprits” of increased environmental tension are not only industrial emissions, but also automobile gases, which account for as much as 40% of all pollution.

Rospotrebnadzor statistics inexorably show that annually the environmental rating of Russian cities does not change for the better, and automobile transport spews about 13 tons of hazardous substances, and more than 58% of the population of megacities experience the negative impact of contaminated air.

Section 4. Norilsk is the most dangerous city in Russia

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The rating of ecologically dirty cities in Russia is quite disappointing. To date, scientists are not drawing the most cheerful pictures about life in Norilsk, which is rather unfavorable from this point of view.

With a population of only 201 thousand people, the city is engaged in mining almost all elements of the periodic table, starting with copper and ending with iridium. From the mouths of scientists, one can often hear the statement that Norilsk is on the verge of an ecological disaster. And not only.

Horrific studies show that the average life expectancy for men is 45 years, for women it is slightly longer. Bronchial asthma, cancer, mental and physical disorders in infants - the consequences of an overdose of hazardous substances. Carbon dioxide emitted 2% of the total global emissions!

And this is only in one city that holds the lowest mark, if we take into account the rating of cities of Russia on ecology.

Section 5. Potentially dangerous Dzerzhinsk

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The situation in Dzerzhinsk of the Nizhny Novgorod Region can harm not only the population of the city, but also the capital of the whole Volga region. Why is this happening? What is the reason?

The fact is that here during the reign of N. S. Khrushchev they were engaged in the development of chemical weapons, as a result of which contamination with phenol, sarin and lead still remind people of the times of the Cold War.

But that's not all. The activities of the current, as if modern and superbly-equipped industrial enterprises of the city do not have the best effect on the state of the environmental situation in Dzerzhinsk.

Section 6. Not so bad!

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However, we hasten to assure you that the ecological map of Russia with cities is not as pessimistic as it may seem at first glance, and yet you should not despair.

To date, the work of environmentalists is moving noticeably, albeit at a very moderate pace. We give explanatory data. So, during the reading of the report “On the state and environmental protection of the Russian Federation” in 2013, it was said that, for example, Solikamsk was removed from the list of the dirtiest cities in Russia. But it still has 123 cities.

The ecological rating of Russian cities shows that the Astrakhan, Samara, Ulyanovsk and Sverdlovsk regions, the Chuvash Republic, Khakassia, the Krasnoyarsk Territory are recognized as the dirtiest regions.

The Murmansk, Novgorod, Kirov, Omsk and Leningrad regions, as well as North Ossetia, are recognized as pure.

Section 7. What does the rating of environmentally friendly cities in Russia?

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Not so long ago, the Deputy Minister of Natural Resources and Ecology of Russia, Rinat Gizatulin, presented a list of cities that, according to the employees of the Ministry, are the most environmentally friendly. This collection includes 87 cities with a population of more than half a million people. It is noteworthy that Moscow occupies an honorable 4th place in it. But the cleanest city was recognized as the capital of Bashkiria - Ufa.

The assessment was carried out primarily on the quality of air and water, as well as on a policy guaranteed by local authorities aimed at cleansing their city from pollution.

The last on the list are Astrakhan, Barnaul and Magadan. This is largely due to the fact that the authorities of these localities completely ignored the request for data necessary for the analysis, which means that it is generally difficult to draw any conclusions regarding them today.

Section 8. Can Moscow be considered a clean city?

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Despite the fact that the main city of the state is in 4th place among the cleanest cities in Russia, the capital is not an environmentally friendly place.

However, at present, the policy of the authorities in Moscow and the Moscow Region provides for a thorough monitoring of the state of the environment in different areas.

So, for example, Mossekomonitoring regularly publishes data on the state of the soil, air, water and forests, and also vividly shows the dynamics of changes. Mobile eco laboratories immediately and on demand respond to complaints from residents. As for especially dangerous industrial emissions, monitoring is carried out here daily.

Thus, it can be said with confidence that in Moscow today all the necessary conditions have been created to control the environmental situation.

Section 9. Ufa is the cleanest city in Russia

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As already mentioned above, at the end of 2013, Ufa became the most favorable city for life from an environmental point of view.

Indisputable data are given, according to which the capital of Bashkiria is considered the undisputed leader in the quality of air, water consumed, and territorial management. Remarkable indicators in almost all areas.

In addition, in October of this year, Bashneft launched a newest air purification plant that produces high purity hydrogen. Moreover, it not only has a positive effect on air quality, but also improves the quality of petroleum products produced at the plant.

Unfortunately, not everything is as rosy as we would like. Why? The fact is that not so long ago, Ufa officials made a positive decision on the construction of the Kronoshpan wood processing plant. It would seem that both jobs and their plant, and deductions to the local budget are never superfluous.

However, officials with certain powers do not want to understand that the plant’s activities can cause significant damage to water resources. The protests of activists, members of ecological communities and even a court decision will, unfortunately, have no effect on the construction, which should start soon. But whether Ufa after this will shine a gold award in the ranking of the cleanest cities is difficult even to guess.

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