Ivan Fedorov: a monument in Moscow. Description of the monument to Ivan Fedorov

Anonim

The monument to pioneer Fedorov, created in 1909, is another landmark of Moscow, to which hundreds of tourists and residents of the city go every day.

Ivan Fedorov

Ivan Fedorov was a native of the Russian kingdom. Although he was born on the territory of modern Moscow, he spent most of his life on the lands of the Lithuanian Principality, as well as in Ukraine, in Lviv, which at that time was part of the Russian Voivodship and the Commonwealth. For a long time he worked in the Moscow publishing house, opened with the Tsar's money, the legendary Ivan Fedorov, the first printer. A monument to him was originally built near this building.

Image

However, it is he who is considered the founder of book printing. In the Russian kingdom of the period of Ivan the Fourth, he first published the religious work “The Apostle”. It was Fedorov who owned the first printing house in the history of the then state.

A scientist was born between 1510 and 1530 years. There is a version of his birth on the territory of the Vileika district of the Minsk region.

Consequently, today there are very few memories of him. Some researchers of the life of Fedorov believe that he received his education in Krakow, becoming a bachelor. The city university has a record of it.

Initially, he was going to devote himself to serving God, and was listed as a deacon at the Kremlin church of Nikola Gostunsky.

Job change

The fact that Fedorov worked in the Printing House of Ivan the Fourth, was not preserved in the affirmative data. He is credited with publishing several anonymous brochures issued in Moscow.

Exactly one year, from 1563 to 1564, Fedorov worked with his assistant Peter Mstislavts on the book Apostle. Ivan Fedorov first put his seal on this book. The monument depicts the first page of the Apostle. A year later, the pioneer publishes a new book - "The Watchmaker."

Image

Life in Lithuania and Ukraine

After the boyar attacks on the printing house, Fedorov and his partner were forced to flee to the Principality of Lithuania. There they settle in Khodkevich, Hetman of Lithuania, and begin to work for him. Getman bought and opened the printing house for them.

In the estate of Zabludov, where they settled down, the books “The Learning Gospel” and “The Psalter with the Hour Master” are published. The second edition of the Apostle Fedorov already prints in Lviv. For this book, he also wrote his publishing speech. At the personal invitation of Prince Ostrozhsky, he settled for several years in this city, where he published the world's first Bible in Church Slavonic. I managed to visit Vienna and Krakow. For a long time he corresponded with prominent European luminaries of science.

He died in Lviv, where he was buried.

Printing

Being a church minister of the lower class, Ivan Fedorov chose the most popular religious texts for the press. He also published several books on grammar so that everyone could learn how to write and read.

The first models for books were made according to modern standards. In the text on one page placed twenty-five lines. They are almost identical to the modern A4 format. In the first printed book, there are footers, and even superscript and subscript links, fashionable in those days in Europe. They were adopted there by Ivan Fedorov. The monument depicts a scroll with similar letters.

Image

Two colors were used during printing. Before the publication of the book, I had to carefully read the text, correct mistakes, change some turns of speech. Each new chapter was decorated by the original printer with original vignettes and decorative fonts.

Machine

About this legendary tool, for which Fedorov worked day and night, almost no data was preserved. After the death of the publisher there was only a description of what was with him. The machine was made by Italian technology. To him in addition there were wooden details. The letters were pressed to the paper with the help of a plate twisted by a large copper screw. A frame for the letters was also found there. The machine weighed about 104 kilograms. Ivan Fedorov used it with ease. The monument depicts this machine in an enlarged view.

Image

History of the monument

The funds to memorialize the great Ivan Fedorov began to be collected in 1870. The collection was initiated by representatives of the Archaeological Union of Moscow. Although the money was collected fairly quickly, the question of who exactly will work on the sculpture remains open.

The monument to Ivan Fedorov, where the first printer stands in full growth, was created in 1909. The money was going to him for thirty-nine years. Before the construction of the monument began, 29, 000 rubles were collected for it, an amount unprecedented at that time. The competition of architects and sculptors for the first time failed. The commission did not like any version of the proposed work.

Image

After a careful selection of the best artists in Russia and other countries, sculptor Sergey Volnukhin and architect Ivan Pavlovich Mashkov were recruited. The projects of winners were evaluated by the historian Klyuchevsky and the painter Apollinary Vasnetsov.

Description of the monument to Ivan Fedorov

Ivan Fedorov froze on the monument in his favorite position while working. In one hand he has a printed board with a set of letters. In his other hand, he holds a page he just made from the book The Apostle. The sculpture was made of bronze.

The description of the monument to Ivan Fyodorov will not be complete if you do not tell about his clothes. Although the book publisher was a clergyman, the sculptors portrayed him in the usual clothes of those times: a long buttoned-up caftan, from under which are seen pants tucked into boots.

Image

Hair at the first printer tied with a ribbon, so as not to interfere during operation.

The pedestal is decorated with the arms of Fedorov in the form of a hand with a shield and with initials. Above the letters there is a small tip like an arrow. Under the sculpture of the master there is the signature of “Nikola of the Wonderworker Gostunsky to deacon Ivan Fedorov”.

The sculptor could not ignore the book "Apostle" and put the date of the beginning of its creation under the name of the publisher.

Location

The place where the monument to Ivan Fedorov is erected was not chosen by chance. Once it was once the Printing House, which was funded by Ivan the Terrible. There the book “Apostle” was published in the first edition. The yard was founded in 1553, and at the same time Fedorov began to work there.

Under Peter the Great, it was in this place that the Vedomosti newspaper began to be published.

But if tourists ask where the monument to Ivan Fedorov is located, they will be called a completely different place. The reason for this was the transfer of the monument with a pedestal. In 1934, the streets of Moscow began to expand, demolish old buildings. Kitaigorod wall was gone, and the statue was decided to move.

And in the 90s the monument was transported to the Metropol hotel. From the place of work of Fedorov, the once-great Print Yard, only a small terem remained. There, in the former "right", Ivan Fedorov worked. The tour at the monument is held on weekdays and weekends, and it ends with a tour of this teremka.

In memory of Fedorov

The Moscow monument is not the only mention of this worthy person, spiritual person and enlightener. In 1997, a museum was opened in the Pototsky Palace in honor of Ivan Fedorov. It is possible to find out in more detail about the life of the creator of the books, as well as how the printing process took place initially, which books they preferred to publish and why at first only spiritual literature was published.

Image

Near the museum "stands" in human growth, Ivan Fedorov - pioneer printer. The monument was made by sculptor Anatoly Galyan.

In 1998, in the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, the icon was consecrated, which depicts the creator of books with his machine. This relic is unique by the fact that for the first time in the entire Orthodox history a print machine appeared on it.

In 2009, Fedorov was canonized in the Old Believers Orthodox Church, dubbing him deacon John.

And in 2010, the name of Ivan Fedorov was given to the State Press University in Moscow, on the day he celebrated his eightieth birthday.

In Lviv, on one of the central squares, a five-meter-high sculpture towers - Ivan Fedorov, dressed in a church robe. The monument in Moscow is very different from her. The monument in Lviv was erected not far from the place where its printing house was located.

Facts about the monument

  • During the opening of the monument in 1909 all the city authorities gathered. A procession was made. The next day, pedestrians discovered that a monument had a wreath on which was the inscription "To the Martyr of Russian Printing". The unknown person wanted to hint at the very same persecutions that Ivan Fedorov himself endured in Moscow from the then authorities.
  • Ivan Fedorov became a legend in the USSR. The monument in Moscow was depicted on Soviet postage stamps that year, when they celebrated three hundred and fifty years since his death.
  • The sculpture can be seen while viewing the once-acclaimed Soviet blockbuster "The meeting place can not be changed." Near him Sharapov and Anya met.
  • The monument is located near the street Nikolskaya. It has long been famous for its book market and shops. Before the revolution, Nikolskaya was a real center of book life, where the entire Moscow elite lived from morning to evening.
  • In Soviet times, the monument became directly associated with books. He painted on advertising bookstores and new stores.
  • The monument to Fedorov is visible from Okhotny Ryad.
  • The creator of the work Volnukhin is considered the progenitor of modernity, as well as symbolism in Russian sculpture. He worked on it for two years.
  • To this day, there has not been any mention of what Ivan Fedorov looked like. The monument was partly helped to create I. Zabelin, a Russian historian who directed the sculptor, focusing on the era when the publisher lived.

Interesting Articles

Katy Perry bez make-upu: kontrola vši

Imran Khan je slibný herec z Bollywoodu

Vlastnosti a struktura filozofických znalostí (stručně) \ t

Ruský Kim Kardashian tvrdí, že nikdy nešla pod nůž plastického chirurga