How to determine the trees of central Russia? Deciduous trees of central Russia

Anonim

In terms of species composition, temperate forests are much less tropical. Trees in central Russia are few and seemingly should be known to everyone. But it is not. Of course, everyone can easily recognize birch, pine or spruce, but not everyone can tell elm from maple or be able to describe what a linden looks like. It should also be noted that some trees prevail in the forests, and others in the cities. This article focuses primarily on forest species.

Trees of Central Russia: Names

The most common coniferous tree in the East European Plain is pine. Spruce ordinary is slightly less popular. Sometimes there are white fir and deciduous larch. But the dominant position belongs deciduous. They grow faster than conifers, and more easily adapt to environmental changes, so they take root even in big cities. According to research conducted on the territory of the Central Russian Upland, the prevailing indigenous species are pedunculate oak, cardio-leaved linden and common ash. Naturally, birch and aspen are ubiquitous. Along the banks of the forest rivers, various species of willows and black alder grow. In shady places comes across a rough elm (he is a mountain elm). The characteristic trees of central Russia are various maples, and ordinary mountain ash, and forest apple trees. In the cities, decorative forms of apple trees, black and white poplars are widespread, horse chestnut is found.

Ash Ash

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This tree is one of the most impressive in our forests: it reaches a forty-meter height. Ash has a straight trunk; bark gray-greenish. The tree prefers moist but not swampy soils, therefore it often grows along streams and rivers. Young ash trees, in contrast to adults, are not demanding. In winter, a tree is easily identified by large black buds. Ash crown - high set, openwork, beautiful shape. It has very recognizable leaves - long (up to 35 cm), pinnate.

In general, the leaves of trees in central Russia are the most accessible material for identification. Analyzing their shape, it is relatively easy to determine the appearance.

Heart Lime (small-leaved)

It is a fairly high (up to 35 meters) tree. It grows on plains and in the foothills, often on cliffs, slopes. It survives well in cities and therefore is often used as an allele plant. Linden has a straight trunk with wrinkled grayish bark. Trees that grow in glades have powerful egg-shaped crowns. Lipa is a honey tree. It blooms late in the middle of summer. Small white-yellow flowers have a pronounced sweetish aroma and attract bees. In addition, they are a drug.

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The flowers are collected in a bunch, at the base of which is a long leaf - a lionfish. Linden fruits are round nuts. The leaves are rounded-heart-shaped, slightly resembling poplar leaves. Deciduous trees of central Russia, as a rule, do not differ in particular durability, but the heart-leaved linden can live up to 800 years.

Black Alder

This tree has nothing against increased humidity. It is found in river valleys and even in swamps. Alder grows to 30 meters. Its trunk is dark with deep wrinkles, the wood is reddish-yellow. The leaves are rounded, with a notch opposite the cutting. Alder blooms in mid-spring, just during the flood. In male trees, flowers are collected in long yellow-purple earrings. Female inflorescences have the form of solid cones.

Black alder loves light and grows fast. This is a useful plant. Its wood is suitable for use in high humidity environments.

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Pedunculate oak

Trees of central Russia are medicinal, some of their parts are often used in medicine. The oak with its dark and very coarse, but healing bark is no exception. This tall tree grows on hills and valleys. It has knobby branches and easily recognizable leaves, which are called peristolopatnymi, as they consist of several pairs of accrete blades.

Oaks bloom in late spring. Fruits are light brown-yellow acorns (2-3 pieces on a long petiole). Oaks live long, their wood is hard and not rotting. For this reason, make it expensive furniture "for centuries".

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Elm rough (mountain elm)

The name of the tree is due to the abundance of longitudinal cracks in its bark. The height of the elm is 30 meters, while the plant is very slender, with a long, strong trunk and a relatively wide crown. Trees in central Russia are distinguished by unpretentiousness: for example, rough elm produces abundant growth in both damp lowlands and mountains, climbing to a height of 1000 meters above sea level and rooting on stony steep rocks. Elm is demanding not so much to the temperature of the environment as to the fertility of the soil. It has large, rough and not very symmetrical oblong leaves with a bicontelate margin.

Rough elm values ​​penumbra, so in open spaces it can not be found. It blooms very early; purple-red flowers are collected in dense small bunches. By the summer, elm fruits ripen and fall. They are oblate nuts, surrounded by two coalescent broad blades.

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Poplar and aspen

Almost everyone can identify these plants, the determinant of trees in central Russia is unlikely to be needed here. But still, speaking of the most common plants in our country, it is impossible to ignore these species. By the way, not everyone knows that the second name of aspen is poplar trembling. This tree is very soilless, but loves the sun. Aspen is rapidly capturing fresh cuttings and clearings, but its age does not exceed 90-100 years. The trunk is long and smooth, with gray-green bark. The crown is small, sparse and high. The leaves are almost round, with a rough edge. The slightest breath of wind makes them shiver, due to the special structure of the stem. From above, aspen leaves are dark green, from below - gray. In the fall, they acquire a rich burgundy color.

Black poplar is better known as a "cultural" tree. It is more often found in cities along the highway or on village streets than in the woods. Poplar appreciates the sun and moisture. Under favorable conditions, the tree grows to 40 meters. The bark is gray, rough, with longitudinal cracks. The crown is extensive. The leaves are heart-shaped.

Conclusion

So, the article briefly described the trees of central Russia, whose names are well known to all. Look at the photos, practice a little - and it will not be difficult to distinguish one plant from another. Fortunately, as already noted, the forest flora of a temperate climate is not so numerous.

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