- New time - new concepts
- Basic social standards
- Expense-income items: general information, classification
- Calculation of the minimum consumer budget
- Minimum consumer budget of Russia
- Socio-economic situation of the population
- Analysis of the situation
- The most important indicator
- Scope of application
- The relationship of elements
- Basic standards
- Welfare assessment
- Established norms
In the entire history of mankind, from the most ancient empires and the birth of political and economic institutions and ending with modern society, information on the situation of the population is of paramount importance. It reflects the level of development of the state.
New time - new concepts
The development of modern society was accompanied by the emergence of socio-economic institutions. At the same time, the system for analyzing living standards was improved. Over time, the extremely physiological needs were relegated to the background, and the area of meeting the general needs of the population came to the fore. By the end of the 19th century, the socio-demographic profile of the planet changed significantly, the productivity and education of people increased dramatically. All this led to the emergence of qualitatively new needs in assessing the living conditions of the population. It was time for large-scale wars and technological breakthroughs. During this period, the assessment of the social situation was of increasing economic and political importance. With the advent of new statistical, sociological, mathematical methods, the concept of "standard of living" has entered a new level.
Basic social standards
Today they include:
- Minimum salary and disability allowance (temporary), unemployment compensation for able-bodied citizens, social and labor pensions for the disabled, disabled, elderly.
- Scholarships for students, one-time or regular payments to low-income categories of the population.
In the complex, they form a system of minimum social guarantees. Their provision is the responsibility of the state. The population is entitled to receive a minimum wage, retirement pension, insurance benefits, including sickness benefits, unemployment, care for young children, pregnancy and childbirth, and so on, as well as the necessary free services in the field of culture, health and education. The core of the social policy of the state is the subsistence minimum. It is with him that all other social guarantees and standards should interact.
Expense-income items: general information, classification
The formation of articles and their subsequent comparison is of great importance for the effective management of any economy. Based on the results obtained, a conclusion is made about how profitable and useful the activity is and what changes need to be made to improve the situation. In accordance with the degree of satisfaction of needs distinguish:
- Minimum consumer budget. It is compiled on the indices of necessities.
- Rational budget. When compiling it, not real expenses and incomes are taken, but indicators derived from scientifically based ideas about the needs and norms of distribution. This budget allows you to set the deviation of real consumption. It serves as a guideline, which indicates what should be the distribution of essential goods "ideally".
- Elite budget. It is compiled for high income groups.
The minimum consumer budget is widely used. It is made up, as a rule, by those who manage the household. For example, the minimum consumer budget of a family of 4 is a table. In one part of it, all revenues that were received for a specific period are given, and in the other, expenses for the same time are given. In a different way, the average budget is compiled. In this case, the income and expenses are average in the country. This takes into account the consumer basket. Both the minimum consumer budget, both averaged and real, are compiled in accordance with the statistical data obtained in the course of special studies of incomes and expenses. As a rule, the study is carried out once a quarter. The minimum consumer budget of the Russian Federation is compiled according to statistical studies in cities with a population of more than one hundred thousand, in 32 small and medium settlements, 58 rural locations. In general, about five thousand households are being studied.
Calculation of the minimum consumer budget
In determining the indicators, the following methods are used:
- Normative. In this case, the norms are the consumption standards of services and goods, as well as their actual cost.
- Statistical. Using this method, the minimum consumer budget is drawn up on the basis of the income that is actually at the disposal of the population.
- Combined. In this case, the standards for food and the actual costs of other items are taken into account.
- Subjective. This method is based on public opinion and expert survey.
- Resource. In this case, the minimum consumer budget is drawn up in accordance with the state’s ability to ensure that citizens meet the needs of the first necessity.
Expenditure and income items can be formed not only for certain groups of the population, but also for certain regions of the country.
Minimum consumer budget of Russia
Each period is characterized by one or another level of material security, in which the process of reproduction of labor and the population will proceed normally. When drafting expenditure items, they may include various services and goods. What is included in the minimum consumer budget is considered to be the basic necessities by which the most important needs can be met. In particular, they include shoes, underwear, food, clothing, sanitary and hygiene supplies, medicines and so on. The value of the minimum consumer budget depends on the level at which the productive forces of the country are located. In most cases, the articles are compiled by multiplying the norms and standards by the retail price. If they are absent, then indirect data is taken as a basis. The minimum consumer budget and the subsistence minimum are the basis on which the domestic system of material security stands. The differences between them consist in the valuation of the structure and volume of distribution of products. The concept of a minimum consumer budget provides, among other things, for the accounting of expenditures for certain spiritual needs. In general, it includes the costs of a wider range of services and goods. Therefore, the size of the minimum consumer budget is 3-4 times more.
Socio-economic situation of the population
The gradual transition from “average citizens” to the household was quite significant in characterizing the standard of living. It has become the central object of all social studies. Contributed to this adoption in 1992, the methodology of the national system of accounts. In it, the population was first defined as a full subject of macroeconomic constructions. To obtain a reasonable assessment of the socio-economic level, it is necessary to take into account that the minimum consumer budget is associated with the category of a certain income-property and socio-demographic development. Today, attention and requirements for the security of the population have increased significantly.
Analysis of the situation
The standard of living is assessed by the municipality as a whole. This takes into account:
- Accumulated property.
- The standards of quality of life adopted by society regarding the assessment of income.
- Cash savings.
- Costs and consumption of the population.
- Provision of objects of culture, trade, utilities, art, communications, transport, consumer services, education, health, and so on.
- Protection status of vulnerable groups.
- The volume of consumption of non-food products.
The rating system uses indicators:
- The average salary.
- The subsistence minimum of certain demographic groups.
- Purchasing power from Wed s / n and pension.
- The minimum consumer budget for certain demographic categories of the population.
- Cash costs and income of major groups of citizens.
- The number and proportion of citizens whose average per capita income is less than the physiological (subsistence) minimum and minimum consumer budget.
- Distribution of food products by households with different incomes.
The most important indicator
It is the cost of living. The interpretation of this definition is given in the Methodological Provisions of Statistics. Its indicator, for the determination of which the minimum consumer budget is taken as a basis, is associated with the category of social guarantees of the state. It expresses the physiological needs of the human need. The subsistence minimum determines the level of consumption of services and goods, which is considered sufficient to ensure normal life.
Scope of application
The subsistence minimum, besides being associated with the state social security system, is used in determining the poverty threshold, serves as the basis for establishing and differentiating wages, pensions, various kinds of benefits and compensations. It is used in the calculation of benefits for needy citizens.
The relationship of elements
The definition of a living wage, as mentioned above, is carried out using indicators of the minimum consumer budget. In this case, the level of income is taken into account, which allows to meet the needs of a person in accordance with physiological norms. They, in turn, should cover the energy costs of the body for the development and growth of children, adult life, maintaining health in old age and the costs of other services and essential goods. The minimum consumer budget is set depending on age, gender and location and constant human activity. Its amount is periodically reviewed in accordance with the dynamics of prices. To determine it, the value of the consumer basket is very important.
The set of products is set in accordance with the minimum size of consumption by the Institute of Nutrition with the participation of WHO. The minimum basket is differentiated by 8 climatic zones. The division of the territory was carried out in accordance with the quantitative assessment of the factors that determine the cultural and material needs of the population, depending on the conditions in which the population lives. Standards for non-food goods and services, as well as mandatory payments are set according to the share of costs of low-income families. The information base of the expenditure structure study of 10% of the population with the lowest security serves as an information base.
To create favorable conditions for reproduction, it is necessary not only to efficiently manage the household, but also to competently plan the minimum consumer budget. Families of 4 may have the following income:
- Property income.
- Entrepreneurial profit.
- State subsidies (pension, allowance, scholarship, free services).
- Proceeds from other sources (inheritance, for example).
In the expenditure part may include the following articles:
- Social Insurance.
- The rent, utilities.
- Shoes and clothes.
- Industrial goods.
- Other expenses.
In the majority of families, wages and commercial profits have the highest incomes among incomes. Usually they determine the welfare of the family. The next most important is the profit from the property. This could be rent, rent, dividends, interest, and so on. As for expenses, the first place in them is spent on food. In families whose income is below the minimum, they make up about 60-90%, and in high-income families - 42%. In the USA, for comparison, the indicator is at the level of 25.4%, in Japan - 25-30%. According to research conducted by American experts, the volume of domestic consumption at the beginning of the 90s. accounted for 34.4% of the level in America, for clothes - 39%, and for products - 54%. When composing a budget, one should take into account that a lot of expenses are completely unreasonable. For example, domestic economists have found that by the beginning of the 90s, about 15-20% of bakery products were being thrown away. After rising prices, the population began to treat them more carefully. As for other products (meat, milk), the average family loses about 4-12% of total income due to its own fault.
The concept of "consumer basket" was first introduced in 1992 by presidential decree. Then it was assumed that this is a temporary measure for a period of crisis. When establishing the basket, it was assumed that the population has some kind of food reserves and is managing the farm. The Federal Law regulating its compilation was adopted in March 2006. According to the act, the share of meat and fish products, milk, eggs, sugar and fruit in the basket was increased. At the same time, the consumption rates of potatoes and bread were reduced. According to Dr. Baturin, the basket is not designed to eat that way. It represents only an economic standard, which shows that, with a minimum consumer budget, you can make a normal daily ration of medical indicators, within which you can fully ensure a healthy state.
The main goal of any modern society is the improvement of the life of the population. The state should provide favorable conditions for a healthy, safe, long and prosperous life. This is only possible if social and economic stability is created in the society. The standards adopted abroad are significantly different from domestic ones. At the same time, it is worth paying attention to the fact that less than half of income is spent on food in developed countries. Most of them go to pay for utilities and housing. As for the Russian consumer basket, it is also radically different from the western one. On its basis, the minimum wage and benefits. The minimum consumer budget is also far from ideal. The fact is that it depends on many indicators - the same basket, the minimum wage and so on.