- The history of the park
- Environmental role
- Geographical location of the protected area
- Forest areas of the park
- Fauna "Nechkinsky" park
- Diversity of the animal world
- Monuments of nature of the National Park "Nechkinsky"
- Scientific works
Nechkinsky National Park is an environmental, environmental education and research institution. On its territory there are not only natural, but also historical and cultural objects of the Middle Kama Region. They have a special aesthetic, ecological and recreational value, and are actively used for regulated tourism.
The history of the park
An effective way to protect and preserve natural complexes is the organization of national parks with a multifunctional profile of activity. In 1995, the government of the Udmurt Republic decided on the need to create a Nechkinsky park.
Currently, any activity that may have a negative impact on objects of the animal and plant world is prohibited on its territory. In addition, any construction is prohibited, including pipelines and highways.
The Nechkinsky National Park in Izhevsk has the following goals:
- Preservation of unique natural sites, as well as flora and fauna objects.
- Preservation of historical monuments and cultural heritage sites.
- Environmental education activities.
- Creating optimal conditions for regulated tourism, as well as recreation of the population, familiarization with the historical and cultural heritage.
- The introduction of the latest environmental practices.
- Restoration of disturbed historical, cultural and natural sites.
- Protection, protection and reproduction of the animal and plant world.
- Implementation of environmental monitoring.
Currently, the Nechkinsky National Park (Russia) in the vast network of protected areas of Udmurtia is one of the valuable wildlife reserves. There are unique tracts of floodplain forests, marsh, lake, river ecosystems, wild wildlife, untouched by man, cultural and historical objects. The employees of the park are faced with a difficult task not only of preserving the existing wealth, but also of its multiplication, since about seventy percent of the species composition of plants and animals throughout the Udmurt Republic is concentrated on the territory.
Geographical location of the protected area
National Park "Nechkinsky" is located on the banks of the Votkinsk reservoir in the middle course of the Kama. It should be noted that the territory of the left and right banks are very different from each other. Left bank lands are represented by floodplain terraces and floodplains. Prikamye is nothing but a valley with small rivers, gullies and ravines.
The Kama and the Sivaya tributary are the main rivers of the protected area.
Nechkinsky National Park is located on lands with moderate continental climatic conditions. For these places is characterized by a long cold winter and warm summer, a very short off-season. July is the warmest month, during this period the average temperature is nineteen degrees. But the coldest time is January, the average temperature is -15 degrees.
Nechkinsky National Park has a flora of boreal moderate type, which is characterized by great diversity. 745 species of vascular plants were found here, 82 of them are rare species, and four are listed in the Red Book. There are also unique plants, which were first found during research, growing only in the protected area: creeping umbilical cord, reed butterbur, field lazy.
The park is dominated by spruce forests. Pure spruce forests are represented by Finnish and Siberian spruce. They are found in this area fragmentary. As a rule, spruce trees are represented by Siberian fir, pine, birch, linden. Spruce forests are located in ravines and on other low-lying reliefs, as well as in slobkozalivaymi or non-floodplain floodplain areas of the Kama.
On the territory of the nature protection zone, 24 fern species of plants are recorded, 6 gymnosperms, 678 - angiosperms.
Park "Nechkinsky" is located at the junction of three climatic natural zones: forest-steppe, taiga and deciduous forests.
Forest areas of the park
Pine forests are very diverse in composition. Whitegrass pines are fairly limited in their growing areas. They are located in the south of the territory. In eagle pine forests there are hazel, maple and oak. But lingonberries (pine) chose the hill. Often there are reed pine forests and lingonberries.
On the grounds of the park there are several places where fir is dominant. Black alder trees grow on rich soils. Oak dominates in deciduous and deciduous forests. Willow thickets dominate the Kama floodplain.
On the protected area you can find absolutely all types of swamps: lowland, transitional and upland. In pine forests and lowlands very often there are sphagnum bogs.
The aquatic vegetation of the park is no less rich. It has more than sixty species.
Fauna "Nechkinsky" park
The wildlife of the national park "Nechkinsky" is very diverse. 38 species of fish inhabit the local waters, another six species have completely disappeared due to the regulation of the Volga and Kama drains.
In the Votkinsk reservoir are found sabrefish, roach, ruff, perch, bleeding, Volga invader, pike, sprat, bream, burbot, white bream, ide, pike perch. Occasionally, carp, taimen, catfish, loach, and white-eyed cattle are caught in the catch. In the reservoirs a lot of carp, but bream dominates everywhere.
At present, fishing is permitted with a license, and, in principle, any citizen can acquire it. Experts believe that amateur fishing has acquired a serious scale and is comparable to industrial. The only difference is in species preferences. The basis of industrial catch is sabrefish, while lovers prefer pike perch, bream and pike.
Diversity of the animal world
According to official data, the fauna of the National Park "Nechkinsky" is represented by 213 species of vertebrates (land) animals. Experts assume the presence of three more varieties, but so far there is no exact data. Over the past decade, the desman has completely disappeared. In general, according to experts, the lists of animals need serious revision and further clarification.
According to the materials of the Udmurt University, it can be argued that 155 species of birds inhabit the park. These areas are subject to nesting sites. Only thirty species live here permanently, the rest - migratory.
The park is dominated by birds, characteristic of forest and swamp areas. The proportion of steppe birds is quite insignificant.
The forests include the following fauna: elk, lynx, brown bear, hedgehog, shrew, wood mouse, beaver, common squirrel, mole, marten, wild boar, ermine, badger, fox, wolf, weasel, otter.
There are more than 2000 invertebrates in the park, there are quite a few insects here, which is associated with the presence of floodplain and marshy lands.
Monuments of nature of the National Park "Nechkinsky"
On the territory of the park there are eight monuments of nature, which are of great recreational importance. These include the tracts “Galevo” and “Nechkinskoye”, the source “Makarovsky”, the mouth of the river Siva, the lake Zabornoye, the peat bogs “Kemulsky” and “Chisto-Kostovatovskoye”.
Forest stands along the rivers are of great water conservation value. All nature monuments are important for scientific and cognitive activity, and also have a great recreational potential. An interesting fact is that animals and plants adapted specifically to this place live in different areas. Together they form unique and inimitable communities that are not found anywhere else.
The employees of the park conduct active scientific activities in both the historical and biological areas. The presence of thirty archaeological sites obliges them to a detailed study and certification.
Employees face the following tasks:
- Careful study of the fauna and flora of all parts of the park.
- An objective assessment of the populations of "red book" and rare species.
- Conducting important research in several areas.
Scientific works of the National Park "Nechkinsky" are important. Among them, of particular interest is the chronicle of nature, which has been going on since 2005. The staff of the scientific department of the reserve zone regularly publish their works, including:
- The fauna of the bears of the park.
- Crested birds of the national park.
- The fauna of deadbeet bugs.
- Results of studies of beetle beetles.
A lot of work, they cover the flora and fauna of the park "Nechkinsky". In addition, employees are very actively interacting with many tourist, scientific organizations, museums and print publications. Scientific partnership helps to conduct research and disseminate the results of work not only among narrow circles of specialists, but also among the masses, thereby attracting people, devoting them to the problems of nature.