Tunguska (river): description

Anonim

In the far East of Russia, among its many rivers, stretching along the endless, rich in natural gifts, open spaces, there is an amazingly clean and beautiful river Tunguska. It is the left tributary of the Amur.

It is the border between the Khabarovsk Territory and the Jewish Autonomous Region, respectively, located on the left and right banks.

General information

The Podkamennaya Tunguska, a river representing one of the smaller pearls in the beautiful necklace of the numerous natural sights of Siberia, is located in these amazingly beautiful lands.

The Tungus, living from ancient times in the vast territory of Eastern Siberia, in 1931 became known as Evenks. And the fact that the Tungus have lived for centuries along the banks of the Yenisei from the Arctic Ocean to the Chinese border proves the fact that there are many rivers called Tunguska. There are seven of them.

And there are 4 more rivers, in the title of which there are adjectives characterizing them: r. Podkamennaya Tunguska, the Upper Tunguska River and two Lower (one of them represents the old name of the river Angara). There is also a natural region in the southern zone of the Central Siberian Plateau called Tunguska. Krasnoyarsk Airport also has this name - "Podkamennaya Tunguska". The name “Tunguska” is quite popular.

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River characteristics

The length of the river is 86 kilometers, the basin area is 30.2 thousand square km. Average daily water consumption is 408 m³. The banks are very swamped, and therefore access to the river is very difficult.

Ice weather here takes place from November to April.

Source and estuary

The Tunguska, which flows through the Lower Amur lowland, is formed by the confluence of 2 rivers: the Kur and the Urmi. From the headwaters of the Urmi River, the length of Tunguska is 544 kilometers, and from the headwaters of the Kur river - 434 kilometers.

A rather extensive flood plain is formed by a river, on which there are about 2 thousand lakes making up a total area of ​​about 80 square meters. Kilometer

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Nutrition

The rivers Kur and Urmi bring the bulk of the water to Tunguska. Mostly rainwater has it. There is usually not very much precipitation within the river catchment in winter and the spring flood is insignificant.

The bulk of the floods occur during the summer monsoon. At 37 kilometers from the mouth, the largest water consumption is 5100 m³ per day, the smallest is 7.3 m³ per day, and the average annual water consumption is 380 cu. m. per day.

Lower Tunguska River

Width p. Lower Tunguska near the village of Tura reaches 390 meters. The river Kochechum at the confluence of it is divided into two sleeves with a width of respectively 340 and 380 meters. Between them there was a big island. Just below the confluence of these two rivers, the width of the Lower Tunguska reaches 520 meters.

This river is very rich in fish. In total, there are about two dozen species. The most numerous of them are taimen, perch, whitefish, grayling, peled, pike and roach (sorog). The fish here is very large, for example, you can catch a pike weighing about 12 kilograms and taimen - more than 10 kilograms.

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The nature of the flow of the river

Tunguska (river) is a fast, powerful and full-flowing reservoir. Its sandy-rubble cliffs alternate with rocky shores. The bottom of the river is rocky, covered with coarse sand and rubble. The water in it and in its tributaries is clear with a gray-greenish tinge.

Ice thickness in January reaches one meter, and the freeze-up begins in early October. When ice drift starts in May, huge congestion from ice blocks occurs on the river, and therefore floodplain and the territory of some villages are flooded.

The tributary of the Tunguska River Lower is a river with a very interesting and lovely name Eika. There are several other tributaries with no less interesting names: Nepa, North, Ilimpei, Teteya, Uchi, Vivi, and many more. other

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Tura and its inhabitants

The deep forests of northern taiga surround the village called Tura. To him lead roads, accessible only for high-traffic vehicles. From other cities and regions you can only get here by helicopter or by plane from Krasnoyarsk and some cities of the region. You can get to the village on a motor boat and a boat from the Yenisei by climbing to Lower Tunguska by water.

Tura is the capital of Evenkia. It often stops tourists heading north, where the Putora Plateau, which is of interest to all, is located, as well as the place where the famous Tungussky meteorite fell.

Tunguska is a river chosen by numerous rafting tourists. August is the best period for such an extreme type of holiday. Moreover, all travelers with pleasure along the way are engaged in fishing, which in these places is a great pleasure.

Life in the village of Tura largely depends on nearby rivers. The Lower Tunguska is a conductor of many goods for residents of local coastal villages and towns. Also, residents of settlements of the region move along the river.

The most popular activity among the residents of Tura is fishing and picking berries in the summer. They prepare fish both for themselves and for sale.

There are no industrial enterprises near the river banks, which, as a rule, discharge industrial effluents, which explains the presence of a huge amount of fish in the river, and a large one.

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Economic value

Tunguska is a river navigable practically throughout its entire length. Formerly large volumes of forest were produced through its waters until the 1990s.

There are no automobile bridges through Tunguska, however there is a railway line - “Komsomolsk-on-Amur - Volochayevka-2”.

Tunguska, as noted above, is very rich in fish. In the fall, the chum salmon is spawning in it.

Conclusion

Not only the waters of the river are rich in living creatures, but the vegetation along the banks is also no less diverse and magnificent. Over the entire length of the river, the banks are overgrown with untreated dense forests of coniferous trees. Here grow pines, larch, spruce and Siberian cedars. You can meet and alder with birch, as well as mountain ash with bird cherry. The region is also rich in various delicious and healthy berries: black and red currants, lingonberries, cranberries, cloudberries and blueberries.

In conclusion, I would like to note that it is the Lower Tunguska that is called the famous Sullen River: as it was named by the writer Vyacheslav Shishkov in his famous novel of the same name.

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