The largest continent on our planet - Eurasia - occupies a little more than a third of the entire land, about 54 million square meters. km Moreover, Asia accounts for most of it, about 4/5, and only 1/5 - to Europe. The continent itself is located in the Northern Hemisphere, although some of the islands belonging to the mainland are in the southern half of the globe.
Eurasia unites Europe and Asia - two parts of the world, the border between which in Russia lies on the Ural Mountains, on their eastern side. This continent - the only one on the planets
e, which is washed by all oceans: in the north by the Arctic, Indian in the south, in the west by the Atlantic and Pacific in the east. The length of Eurasia in length from west to east is approximately 16 thousand kilometers, and from north to south is half the length, 8 thousand kilometers.
The extreme points of Eurasia: the southern - Cape Piai, the northern - Cape Chelyuskin, the western point - Cape Roca, and the eastern - Cape Dezhneva.
The development of the continent in ancient times began civilizations living in Africa, in order to establish trade relations with the peoples living north of them. A little later, somewhere in the III century BC, the first trade route was formed within the continent, which passed through the Middle East, Europe, China, and India. In turn, the Norman raids helped to master the new territories of the continent. The main territorial discoveries were made in the era of the Great Geographical Discoveries. Russian expeditions of the twentieth century helped to correctly describe the position of the continent using the coordinate system. It was at this time that the extreme points of Eurasia were determined.
In the north, the Eurasian continent goes beyond the Arctic Circle, not reaching the North Pole by about 10 0 . It is here, from Cape Chelyuskin (77 ° 34 'N), located on the Taimyr Peninsula, the continent originates. The Cape was opened by the navigator Semyon Chelyuskin in 1741 during a geographical expedition to the extreme north, which was equipped for the inventory of the northern coast of the Taimyr Peninsula.
Cape Chelyuskin is quite elevated and rocky, covered with snow and ice. Visiting him in 1878
The Arctic teller N. Nordenskiöld built a lighthouse from a floating forest on piles of stones. Now there are signs symbolizing the edge of the earth: a wooden pillar by S. Chelyuskin, a hury, built from slate slabs by R. Amundsen in honor of N. Nordenskiöld's expedition, and a quartz stone giant. Currently, residential buildings and scientific pavilions are built on the cape. The polar hydro meteorological station “Cape Chelyuskin” works here, where up to 10 people winter. Previously, the northernmost airfield was located on the cape, from which only the helipad now remained.
Calling the extreme points of Eurasia, it must be said that the mainland slightly more than 10 ° enters the southern hemisphere, so Cape Piai is the southern edge of the mainland (1 ° 56 "S). The cape is located in Malaysia, in the territory of the national park Tanjung Piai. In this place is set the globe - a memorable sign of the southern tip of the continent.
Most of Eurasia is located in the eastern part of the globe, which means that the eastern extreme points lie on Cape Dezhnev (169 ° 64 'E). Named after its discoverer, Cape Dezhnev opened in 1648. Dezhnev wrote that he was a bare mountain range, steeply breaking down and covered only with a “blanket” of fog, over which clouds were driven by air currents.
Now a wooden memorial cross rises on the rocky shore, which is installed in honor of the Russian sailors in the year of the 350th anniversary of the voyage of the Dezhnev expedition. Another monument shows the symbolic link between Asia and America. Next to the lighthouse on a high pedestal is the third monument - the bronze bust of Dezhnev, a man with an open and courageous face.
Listing the extreme points of Eurasia, let us call the most western part of the continent - Cape Roca, located in Portugal (38 ° 47 'W). The cape is a rock that rises 140 meters above the level of the Atlantic Ocean. The coordinates of this extreme eastern point of the mainland are carved on a stone stele. Here is a lighthouse, which attracts so many travelers.