Inhabitants of the Baltic Sea: types and description, habitat, photo

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The Baltic Sea belongs to the Atlantic Ocean basin, is located in Northern Europe and has a surface area of ​​415 km 2 . Many rivers flow into it, so it has an average salinity, it is one of the largest seas in the world with this feature. There are no big storms in the Baltic, the maximum wave height rarely reaches more than 4 meters, so it is considered calm compared to other seas. The water temperature is quite cold, not more than 17-19 degrees Celsius, but it still does not stop the locals from swimming in the summer.

9 Baltic neighbors

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The Baltic Sea washes the shores of several countries: Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden and Finland. It has four bays: Finnish, Bothnia, Riga and Curonian. The latter is separated from the sea by a strip of land - the Curonian Spit, which is a national natural park and is protected by the state. Interestingly, this natural reserve is divided between two states: Russia and Lithuania.

Inhabitants

Baltic Sea is rich in seafood. They are mined in the Kaliningrad region and European countries. The water here is not as salty as in other seas. Therefore, some scientists conditionally divide the inhabitants of the Baltic Sea into freshwater and marine ones. Freshwater fish mostly live in bays. Sea is in a distance from the coast. In the Baltic there is:

  • Sprat. It is a small fish of the herring family, rarely growing more than 25 cm. It is the main commercial fish of the Baltic Sea, about half of the total catch falls on it. Baltic herring is smoked, fried and preserved.

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  • Baltic sprat. A very common fish in Europe, one of the famous names "European sprat". Sprat is less than Baltic herring, the adult individual grows no more than 15 cm. In cooking, this fish is universal, like the Baltic herring, but more often it is made from canned food.
  • Cod. It is a sea fish of the cod family, meat is rich in protein and minerals, it is a good source of B vitamins. Also in cod meat there is a lot of niacin, which is useful for liver diseases. It grows up to 1 meter in length, the largest individuals can reach sizes up to 2 meters, but this happens very rarely. Cod is loved in many countries of the world, there are a great many recipes for cooking dishes from it, a special delicacy is cod liver oil preserved in oil. Cod is one of the most delicious sea creatures of the Baltic Sea.
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  • Flounder. This is a sea bottom fish of fancy flat shape. Its most memorable feature is a flat torso and eyes located on one side, so it’s impossible to confuse flounder with another fish. The scales of this fish are rough like sandpaper. On average, flounder lives for 5 years and grows up to 40 cm in length. It has white, tasty, tender meat, although a specific odor emanates from it, which may not please everyone. To get rid of discomfort during cooking, you need to remove the skin from the fish. Flounder meat contains proteins and useful amino acids that are well absorbed by the body. Flounder is considered a dietary fish.
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  • Acne. This amazing inhabitant of the Baltic Sea is included in the list for a reason. It is found in all the water bodies of the Kaliningrad region. You can catch eels not only in seawater, but also in freshwater rivers. Outwardly, the eel is like a snake, has a long body and swims, wriggling like snakes. At length, the adult individual grows to 1.5 m, and weighs about 2 kg. Eel meat contains proteins, fats and carbohydrates, and is also a source of omega-3. The most common form of cooking eel is smoked.
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  • Perch. Very bony and tenacious fish, can live up to 15 years. Meat is stored for a long time, it contains many vitamins and nutrients.
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Valuable fish

  • Salmon. This is a fish from the salmon family, Atlantic salmon, sometimes called "Baltic", is found in the Baltic salty waters. This species of "noble" sea fish is popularly known as "salmon", it is quite large, an adult male can reach over 1.5 m in length. The taste of meat is delicate and oily, the color varies from light pink to red. Salmon fillet contains almost no bones, so it is popular among those who do not like fish because of the fear of swallowing a small bone. Many dishes are prepared from this fish, including the well-known red salmon caviar appearing on our tables on special occasions.
  • Smelt. Surprisingly, the smelt known to all belongs to the salmon family. It is believed that this fish is not valuable, despite the fact that it is caught in large quantities in the Baltic Sea. Smelt meat is rich in iron and fluorine, doctors recommend that elderly people include it in their diet.

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  • Ryapushka. This small fish is also from the salmon family, its peculiarity is that it lives exclusively in the waters of the Baltic Sea. Whitefish from noble fish is therefore considered a valuable raw material. She is loved in Europe and the Scandinavian countries. In many regions of Russia, whitefish is protected and just cannot be caught.
  • Whitefish. Fish of the salmon family is considered a valuable commercial fish and has more than 40 species. Despite the fact that whitefish belongs to the salmon family, its meat is white and very fat. Because of this feature, whitefish meat is not stored for a long time, so it is consumed or salted immediately after being caught.

Shellfish, crustaceans and jellyfish

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In addition to the fish listed above, mollusks, squids, small crustaceans and bottom fish live in the Baltic waters. It is very rare to find a fluffy crab, which appeared here relatively recently. In the Baltic Sea, there are also jellyfish, the largest - Cyanea - lives near the waters of Denmark. In the rest of the space lives the harmless Aurelia, the inhabitant of the Baltic Sea, whose photo is not as frightening as the one presented above.

Mammals

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Of the mammals in the Baltic Sea, only three seals live:

  • Tyvyak (gray seal).
  • Nerpa (common seal).
  • Harbour porpoise.

Dangerous inhabitants

There are no dangerous inhabitants in the Baltic Sea, only katran can be found from sharks - a small shark with spikes on its fins, it is not dangerous to humans. It does not swim to the Russian shores, lives in the Danish straits, where the Baltic Sea is connected to the North.

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