- Types of mints and some history
- The first courtyards in Russia: the assumptions of historians
- The first courtyard on the territory of Moscow: theories and guesses
- History Mention
- Centralization of money economy
- Coin enterprises of Russia 15-20 centuries
- Manufactures that did not use their distinctions
- Coinage in the RSFSR and the USSR
- Modern Russia
- How is the release of coins in 2015
- Government plans for 2015
Mints are production-type enterprises whose main activity is the minting of coins, the production of orders, medals and other distinctive symbols. The history of enterprises goes into the distant past, at the time of the appearance of the first monetary systems. Today, mints are high-tech enterprises that issue coins at the request of State banks. All manufacturers operate in a strictly secret mode.
Types of mints and some history
Mints can be state that fulfill the orders of the Central Bank. There are similar private organizations specializing in issuing orders and medals, badges and license plates. Each type of enterprise has its own unique stamp applied to all coins. The affiliation of coins of the state and territorial type is determined precisely by the stamp. For the first time the mention of this category of production dates back to 5th century BC. The first mints appeared in Athens. From the 2nd century BC, production was moved from the Theseus temple to the temple of Juno. Already after 115 years from the birth of Christ the court was in the Roman Coliseum. After the emergence of industries in Rome, Lyon, Constantinople, Sicily and Aquilia, they spread throughout the world.
The first courtyards in Russia: the assumptions of historians
It is very difficult to imagine what the mint was like in the past. The photo was not taken at that time, the sketches were not preserved. There are only guesses and guesses. There are facts that indicate that enterprises were handed over to private individuals, whose activities were later subject to strict supervision. People involved in the minting of coins were exempted from taxes and duties. They had privileges in prohibiting the prosecution of all acts other than murder, robbery and fraud. Historical records suggest that the very first mints on the territory of modern Russia in the past worked in such Greek cities of the time as Theodosius and Gorgippia, today known as Anapa. Traces of such industries were observed in Derbent and Tmutarakan.
The first courtyard on the territory of Moscow: theories and guesses
Organized coinage in Moscow, according to preliminary estimates and studies, began during the reign of Ivan Donskoy (1362-1389). No information about this court and its location exists in the historical notes, the fact of its presence was established solely on the basis of the analysis of coins of that time. The first Moscow money was decorated with Russian and Arabic inscriptions; numerous technologically executed stamp links were fixed on them.
The mints of Russia, the presence of which is officially recorded, were founded as early as the 14th and 15th centuries. At that time, the country was led by John III. Coinage was carried out not only in Moscow, but also in such cities as Pskov, Novgorod and Tver. In the period from the 16th to the 17th century, coinage was entrusted to minzmeister. This practice was common in Europe. There is also information that in the 15th century not only state-owned enterprises operated in Moscow, but also cash workshops of individual princes of the Kalita family. The first recorded "sovereign" court appeared after one of the first monetary reforms of Elena Glinskaya in the period from 1535 to 1538. The company was located on the street Varvarka. This event was the beginning of the unification of the Russian monetary system. For many centuries, the mints of Russia issued coins of the same size and appearance, which were obligatory to receive throughout the entire territory of the Russian state. Embossing was carried out manually, and silver wire served as material for production. The wire was originally cut into parts of the same size, and then they were pressed. Then began manual embossing of images and inscriptions on smooth blanks.
Centralization of money economy
In 1595 a department was formed called the Money Order. The organization exercised control over the minting of coins on behalf of the state. This step became the basis of the entire centralization of the money economy. All the money yards, which at that time worked in the country, received official designations with which they had to mark their products.
- Moscow yard - "M" or "MO".
- Novgorod court - «V. BUT".
- Pskov yard - "PS".
Coin enterprises of Russia 15-20 centuries
The answer to the question of how to determine the mint, it became easier to give after each company had its own crown marking. We can mention the following production, which have contributed to the minting of coins:
- Red Yard, or Chinese. It is located near Kitaygorodskaya wall. On the obverse and reverse of the coins, the symbols "CD", "MMD", "MM" were placed. Production operated from 1697 to 1979. The yard issued gold, silver and copper coins of the national type with different denominations. They made special coins. The Mint issued cash for the Baltic provinces and Prussia.
- Kadashevsky yard in Kadashevskaya sloboda. He was also called Khamovny, Zamoskvoretsky, Naval and Admiralty. On the obverse and reverse were placed the signs "MM" and "MD", "MDZ" and "MDD", "M" and "Moscow", "Coin Money Yard". Production operated from 1701 to 1736. Gold, copper and silver coins of various denominations were issued. Copper coins were issued in a specialized branch of production since 1704.
- Embankment copper courtyard on the territory of the Kremlin. The coins were minted signs such as "ND" and "NDZ", "NDD". He worked from 1699 to 1727, issued coins of all denominations.
- The St. Petersburg or Imperial Mint was founded on the territory of the Peter and Paul Fortress in 1724. The designations on the coins are “SPB” and “SPM”, “SP” and “SM”. He worked until the release of money from the tsarist government was terminated. He took an active part in the minting of bronze coins.
- Yekaterinburg courtyard issued coins with the symbols "EM" and "Yekaterinburg". He worked from 1727 to 1876. The issue of coins was complemented by the manufacture of circles for other mints.
It is worth mentioning such companies as the Imperial Mint and Anninsky ("AM"), Kolyvansky ("KM" and "Kolyvan copper") and Suzunsky ("SM") Sestrovetsky ("SM") and Kolpinsky ("KM"), Tavrichesky ("TM") and Tiflissky, Warsaw ("VM", "MW") and Helsingfors.
Manufactures that did not use their distinctions
The mint mark made it possible to determine where and when a certain denomination coin was issued. However, in the history of Russia, courtyards were widely distributed, which did not use their own insignia, but put stamps of other industries on monetary units. These are the Bank yard and the Rosencrantz factory, the Paris court and the Strasbourg, Birmingham and Izhora, Brussels court and the Avesti. Moreover, some mints, such as the Red or St. Petersburg, could use in their work insignia of Kadashevsky and Naberezhny Copper Yard, other similar organizations, which significantly complicated the work of historians.
Coinage in the RSFSR and the USSR
In the RSFSR, the following designations helped to determine which mint issued the money:
- “AG” is the initials of Hartmann, who was at that time the head of the monetary redistribution until 1923.
- “P.L.” - the initials of Latyshev, the head since 1924.
- "TR" - the initials of Thomas Ross, the head of the monetary redistribution of the London court.
The sign of the mint during the existence of the USSR was of two types:
- "LMD" or "L" - Leningrad Mint.
- "MMD" or "M" - Moscow Mint.
Such a sign appeared and acts as a kind of symbol of the coin’s belonging to a specific production. A symbol can be in the form of letters, or it can be presented in the form of a monogram, picture or sign.
In modern Russia, the following notation can be found on coins: “MMD” and “SPMD” - which speak of their release either at the Moscow or at the St. Petersburg Mint. Since 1991, it was decided to put marks like “M”, “L”, “MMD” and “LMD” on the money. Since the period of 1997 - is "M", "C-P" and "MMD", "SPMD". The last two characters were put on money in the form of a monogram. Coins of Russia, starting from 1997, are decorated with the inscriptions "M", "С-П", "ММД" and "СПМД" in the form of monograms. On small coins with denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 50 kopecks, the mark can be seen on the right side under the hoof. Signs "M" and "C-P" on coins with denominations of 1, 2 and 5 rubles are located under the eagle's right paw. The SPMD monogram can be seen on the commemorative banknotes of Russia in denominations of 10 rubles. It is located on the obverse, right under the inscription "10 rubles."
How is the release of coins in 2015
Since 1992, the Central Bank of Russia has been issuing commemorative coins in both precious and non-precious formats each year. Moreover, the issue of investment coins, which are completely minted from precious metals, is systematically carried out. At the same time, as before, a mint mark is affixed on each of them. The minting process is carried out within the framework of the main emission activity and is planned for the entire preceding year. The plan for issuing coins is approved by the leadership of the Central Bank and then posted on the official website of the latter. Each collection coin is issued either in Moscow or in the St. Petersburg mints. This simplifies the search for an answer to the question of how to determine the mint. The coins are decorated with special signs, of which there are only 4 today. The Central Bank of the country has no right to distribute collection coins among individuals. The main distributor is Sberbank. Coins are initially bought up in the first wave by speculators, who then sell them at an inflated price.
Government plans for 2015
In accordance with the emission plan, in 2015, two types of investment banknotes will be minted. During the year 73 commemorative precious coins and 12 commemorative coins of base metal will be manufactured. In the future, there is a continuation of the release of the series started earlier: “Cities of Military Glory” and “Outstanding People of Russia”. The most expensive coin in the history of the country is dated 1999 and has a denomination of 5 kopecks. Its exact cost is unknown, but it significantly exceeds the sum of 100 thousand rubles in the framework of open auctions. These types of coins are especially appreciated by coin collectors.