Sowing rice - description, varieties, cultivation, pharmacological properties and use

Anonim

Sowing rice is one of the most important plants for humans. He is the second most popular cultivation after wheat. This plant has been cultivated for thousands of years. Historians estimate that he was domesticated in China 13, 000 years ago.

Morphology

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Rice sowing (Oryza Sativa L.) - an annual plant of the family of cereals (Poaceae). Comes from Southeast Asia. This is the second most frequently grown grain crop after wheat in the world, which forms the basis of nutrition for 1/3 of the world's population (mainly for residents of eastern and southeastern parts of Asia). 95% of the global rice crop is used for human nutrition. There are many varieties that are adapted to different environmental conditions. This cereal crop has become popular and is grown in areas with a strong population density, because it requires labor-intensive procedures - planting, irrigation of fields, and harvesting.

Description of rice sown:

  • Stems - numerous, dense with a height of 50-150 cm.
  • Flowers - collected in panicles up to 300 mm long, consisting of one-flowered spikelets. The flowers consist of 2 broad flowering scales with awn at spinous forms, painted in red, yellow or brown, 2 near-flowered lodicule films, a single-seeded ovary and 6 stamens.
  • Leaves - up to 100 cm in length and 15 mm in width. They are linear-lanceolate, long-pointed, up to 50 cm - green, purple or reddish. On closer examination, the irregularity of the leaf plate of rice is visible.
  • Fruit - contains 30-100 grains. They are 8 × 4 mm, edible, rich in starch.

Varieties

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There are two subspecies of rice:

  • Indian rice (Oryza sativa indica);
  • Japanese rice (Oryza sativa japonica).

Rice types:

  • white rice - the most popular variety, undergoes the so-called polishing process, because of which the grain loses most of its nutrients;
  • Brown rice - devoid of only inedible husk around the grain, rich in nutrients, it is characterized by a special nutty flavor;
  • steamed rice - white rice is exposed to steam under high pressure, thanks to which it does not lose vitamins and nutrients;
  • Black rice (Indian rice) - rich in antioxidants and vitamin E, has a nutty flavor;
  • Red rice is rich in nutrients and fiber.

Food use

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Partially refined grains are called brown rice, contain about 8% protein and a small amount of fat. It is a source of thiamine, niacin, riboflavin, iron, calcium. During cleaning (polishing), the seeds are completely freed from adhering films and acquire a white polished surface. This rice has a white kink, it is odorless, with a mealy, slightly sweet taste. Sometimes rice is enriched by adding iron and vitamins from group B.

Completely refined grains, the so-called white rice, are largely devoid of valuable nutrients. Before eating, it is prepared and eaten as a separate dish or used to make soups, main dishes and toppings, especially in Eastern and Middle Eastern cuisine. Flour, cereal, grain is produced from rice seeds, it is also a raw material in the production of alcohol - rice wine.

Pharmacological properties

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For professionals and workers engaged in the cultivation and preparation of medicinal plants, as well as for pharmaceuticals (pharmacognosy), sowing rice is of great importance. After all, its decoction has a great nutritional value, known for its soothing, enveloping and wound-healing effect. This cereal is a raw material for starch, which is used as a powder and a coating agent. Bran from it is used to treat a disease caused by a lack of vitamin B1 (beriberi). Rice oil is the main component of therapeutic ointments. Sowing rice is included in the GF, i.e. the list of medicinal plants of domestic origin included in the Russian Pharmacopoeia.

Other uses

By-products, ie, bran and powder, which are formed after the processing of waste in the process of polishing grain, are used as animal feed. Bran oil is used for food and industrial purposes. Crushed grains are used in the preparation of beer, distilled alcohol and the production of starch and rice flour. Straw is used for making bedding, animal feed, roofing material and for the production of mats, clothing, packaging and brooms. Rice is also used in papermaking, for the manufacture of wicker objects, glue and cosmetics (powder). Rice is processed into starch, vinegar or alcohol.

Cultivation

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Rice sowing is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world. In the sixties of the twentieth century, during the so-called green revolution, when the efforts of scientists were aimed at preventing hunger, many new, improved varieties of cultivated plants, including rice, were produced. The new variety was characterized by high resistance to disease, increased yield and the formation of short, strong stems, due to which the plants were less fragile. However, its cultivation did not develop on as large a scale as expected. Due to the high demands on the soil and the need for intensive fertilization, it became available for growing only to richer farmers.

Growing requirements

Due to the high requirements in providing the right amount of water, rice is grown in floodplains, river deltas, mainly in the tropical climate zone. Depending on the variety of rice, it is immersed in water for 5-15 cm.

Wet rice varieties require high growing temperatures - around 30 ° C until April and during ripening up to 20 ° C. Dry rice does not need a submerged substrate to grow, but it must be a humid climate. During the ripening period, only 18 ° C is required.

Depending on the variety of rice, the growing season lasts from 3 to 9 months, due to which the crop can be produced several times a year. It can be grown on different soils, but it is best done on clay soils, since the culture then does not absorb large amounts of water and does not lose nutrients.

Production

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The largest amount of planting rice is grown in China (95% of irrigated fields), India, Japan (rice cultivation accounts for more than half of arable land, mainly in river valleys and coastal lowlands), Bangladesh, Indonesia (10-12% of the area), Thailand (a significant increase from 4.5 million during World War II to 21-22 million) and Myanmar. The most important producers are also Vietnam, Brazil, South Korea, the Philippines and the USA. Since the end of the 20th century, about 363-431 million tons of rice have been produced annually. The cultivation area is about 145 million hectares.

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