- From the history of gas pipelines
- Types of gas pipelines depending on the gas pressure inside them and the method of installation
- What is a protected zone of the pipeline and what is it for?
- Features of the security zone of high pressure gas pipelines
- The organization of the security zone of the high pressure gas pipeline
- Features of the security zone of medium pressure gas pipelines
- Features of the security zone of low pressure gas pipelines
- Security zone of the external gas pipeline
- How is a security zone established for a specific gas pipeline?
- Violation of the security zone of the pipeline. Legal and environmental implications
- Security zones in the design of gas pipelines: land acquisition and arrangement
At present, it is difficult to imagine the life of cities and towns, as well as industrial enterprises without an established pipeline system. They serve liquids and gases, allow people to heat their homes, and businesses - to work successfully. However, benefiting from the existence of gas pipelines, one must remember that gas communications are quite dangerous, and damage to them is fraught with a serious accident.
From the history of gas pipelines
The first gas pipelines were used in ancient China. Bamboo was used as a pipe, and there was no overpressure in the pipes and the gas was supplied by gravity. The joints of bamboo pipes were packed with tow, such structures allowed the Chinese to heat and light their homes, to evaporate the salt.
The first European gas pipelines appeared in the second half of the 19th century. Then the gas was used to create street lighting. The first street lamps were oil, and in 1799 the Frenchman Lebon offered thermo-lamps, capable of lighting and heating the rooms. The idea was not supported by the government, and he built his house with thousands of gas horns, which until his death as an engineer remained a Parisian landmark. Only in 1813, the students of Lebon managed to start lighting cities in this way, but this was already in England. It came to Paris six years later, in 1819. Artificial coal gas was used as fuel.
St. Petersburg began to heat the premises, passing gas through a gas pipeline in 1835, and Moscow - in 1865.
Types of gas pipelines depending on the gas pressure inside them and the method of installation
A gas pipeline is a construction of pipes, supports and auxiliary equipment designed to deliver gas to the required place. Gas flow is always carried out under pressure, on which the characteristics of each section depend.
Pipelines are trunk or distribution. The former transport gas over long distances from one gas distribution station to another. The second ones are designed to deliver gas from the distribution station to the place of consumption or storage. The pipeline may include one or several lines connected by a single technological chain.
Gas pipelines come in two categories, depending on the gas pressure in them.
- The first category of trunk gas pipelines operates under pressure up to 10 MPa.
- The second category of main gas pipelines is designed to work with gas whose pressure is up to 2.5 MPa.
Distribution pipelines are divided into three groups depending on the gas pressure in them.
- Low pressure. Gas is transferred to them at 0.005 MPa.
- Medium pressure. The transmission of gas in such pipelines is carried out under pressure from 0.005 to 0.3 MPa.
- High pressure. Work under pressure from 0.3 to 0.6 MPa.
Another classification allows to divide all gas pipelines, depending on the method of their laying, into underground, underwater and above ground pipelines.
What is a protected zone of the pipeline and what is it for?
This is a piece of land symmetrical with respect to the axis of the pipeline, the width of which depends on the type of pipeline and is established by special documents. The establishment of security zones for gas pipelines makes it possible to prohibit or restrict construction in the area where the pipeline passes. The purpose of its creation is to create normal conditions for the operation of the pipeline, its regular maintenance, preservation of integrity, and minimization of the consequences of possible accidents.
There are “Rules for the Protection of Trunk Pipelines” that regulate the establishment of protection zones for various pipelines, including gas pipelines transporting natural or other gases.
Agricultural work is permitted on the territory of the protected zone, however construction is prohibited. Work on the reconstruction of existing buildings, structures and networks must be coordinated with the organization carrying out maintenance and operation of the gas pipeline. Other activities that are prohibited in the security zone include the construction of basements, compost pits, welding, installation of fences that prevent free access to pipes, the creation of landfills and storage facilities, the installation of ladders supported by a gas pipeline, and the installation of unauthorized connections.
Features of the security zone of high pressure gas pipelines
The security zone of the high pressure gas pipeline of the 1st and 2nd categories is settled in the same way. Their function is to supply gas to low and medium pressure distribution networks.
- High pressure gas pipelines of the 1st category work with gas under pressure from 0.6 MPa to 1.2 MPa, if they move natural gas or gas-air mixtures. For hydrocarbon gases transported in a liquefied form, this pressure should not exceed 1.6 MPa. Their protection zone is 10 m in both directions from the axis of the gas pipeline in the case of distribution gas pipelines and 50 meters for high pressure gas pipelines that transport natural gas. In case the liquefied gas is being transported, the protection zone is 100 m.
- High pressure gas pipelines of the 2nd category transport natural gas, gas-air mixtures and liquefied gas under pressure from 0.3 to 0.6 MPa. Their protection zone is 7 m, and in case the gas pipeline is 50 m for natural gas and 100 for liquefied gas.
The organization of the security zone of the high pressure gas pipeline
The security zone of the high-pressure gas pipeline is organized by its operating organization on the basis of a project specifying a survey made after completion of the construction and permits issued. To maintain it, the following activities are performed.
- Every six months, the organization operating high-pressure gas pipelines is obliged to remind individuals and organizations that operate the land in protected zones about the land-use features of these sites.
- Every year the route must be clarified and, if necessary, all documentation released on it must be corrected. The security zone of the high pressure gas pipeline is accordingly specified.
- The security zone of the high-pressure gas pipeline is marked on its linear sections with columns located at a distance of no more than 1000 m (Ukraine) and no more than 500 m (Russia); all pipe angles should also be marked with a column.
- Places of intersection of the pipeline with the transport routes and other communications are necessarily marked with special signs notifying that there is a zone of alienation of the high pressure pipeline. The stop of transport within the designated security zone is prohibited.
- Each column is supplied with two posters with information about the depth of the route, as well as its direction. The first plate is mounted vertically, and the other with mileage marks - at an angle of 30 degrees for visual control from the air.
Features of the security zone of medium pressure gas pipelines
The security zone of the medium pressure gas pipeline in accordance with regulatory documents is 4 meters. As for the high-pressure tracks, it is installed on the basis of technical documentation provided by the design organizations. The basis for creating a security zone and applying it to the master plan is an act issued by local governments or executive authorities.
The protection zone of the medium pressure gas pipeline assumes the existence of restrictions similar to those specified for high pressure routes. To perform any excavation work in the protection zone, a permit must be obtained from the organization servicing this section of the pipeline.
The marking of security zones for medium pressure is performed similarly. On the columns should be located plates with information on the name of the pipeline, the binding route, the distance from the plate to the axis of the pipeline, the size of the security zone, telephones for communication with the organization serving the section of the pipeline. Boards are allowed to be placed on power transmission towers, communication networks and instrumentation columns.
Features of the security zone of low pressure gas pipelines
The main function of low pressure gas pipelines is to ensure the supply of gas to residential buildings and structures, which can be either built-in or stand-alone. Transportation with their help of a large amount of gas is unprofitable, so large public utilities consumers do not use such networks.
The security zone of the low pressure gas pipeline is 2 m to both sides from the axis of the pipe laying. Such gas pipelines are the least dangerous, therefore the security zone around them is minimal. Restrictions on its operation are similar to those introduced for security zones of other types of gas pipelines.
The security zone of the low pressure gas pipeline is laid out similarly to the two previous ones. If the plates located on the bindings are yellow, the laid pipeline is made of polyethylene. If it is green, then the pipe material is steel. The plate does not have the characteristic of high-pressure pipelines red border above.
Security zone of the external gas pipeline
An external gas pipeline is a gas pipeline that is located outside a building, up to a diaphragm or other disconnecting device, or to a sheath through which it is introduced into a building with an underground variant. It can be located underground, above ground or above ground.
For external gas pipelines there are the following rules for defining protection zones:
- The security zone of the external gas pipeline along the routes is 2 m on each side of the axis.
- If the gas pipeline is underground and is made of polyethylene pipes, and copper is used to designate the route, the security zone of the underground gas pipeline in this case is 3 m from the wire's location, and 2 m from the other side.
- If the gas pipeline is arranged on permafrost soils, regardless of the material of the pipes, its protection zone is 10 m to both sides of the pipe axis.
- If the pipeline is inter-settlement and crosses a wooded area or areas overgrown with shrubs, its protection zone is 3 meters to both sides of the axis. They are arranged in the form of glades, whose width is 6 meters.
- The security zone of gas pipelines located among tall trees is equal to their maximum height so that the fall of the tree would not cause a violation of the integrity of the gas pipeline.
- The protection zone of the external gas pipeline passing under water through rivers, reservoirs or lakes is 100 m. It can be represented visually as the distance between two parallel planes passing through conventional boundary lines.
How is a security zone established for a specific gas pipeline?
The security zone of the gas pipeline is one of the territories with a special land use regime. At the same time, for these objects there is a sanitary protection zone, the rules of arrangement of which are established by SanPiN 2.2.1 / 188.8.131.520-03.
According to Appendix 1 to these rules, the sanitary zone of a high pressure gas pipeline depends on the pressure in the pipe, its diameter, as well as the type of buildings and structures with respect to which the distance is calculated.
The smallest sanitary zone from rivers and other bodies of water, as well as water intakes and irrigation facilities is 25 m for main gas pipelines of any diameter and type.
The highest protection zone of the high-pressure gas pipeline is necessary if we are talking about the 1st class gas pipeline with a diameter of 1200 mm in cities, holiday villages and other crowded places. In this case, the length of the sanitary zone reaches 250 m.
More detailed data on the sanitary protection zones of natural and liquefied gas main gas pipelines can be found in the relevant tables of this document. For highways transporting liquefied gas, sanitary zones are significantly increased.
Violation of the security zone of the pipeline. Legal and environmental implications
Violation of the security zone of a gas pipeline can cause a serious man-made accident, a fire or an explosion. They can be caused by unauthorized excavation works in security zones without the agreement of the organization servicing the gas pipeline, falling trees, car damage.
In the best case, there will be a violation of insulation, at worst - cracks and other defects will appear on the pipe, which will eventually cause a gas leak. Such defects may not appear immediately and only over time cause an emergency condition.
Damage to gas pipelines due to violation of protected zones is punishable by a large administrative fine, which depends on the degree of damage. Demolition of buildings and structures built on the territory of protected zones is carried out by decision of an administrative court.
Unauthorized earthworks, unauthorized planting of trees and shrubs, organizing sports competitions, locating fire sources, building buildings, working out sand pits, fishing, deepening or cleaning the bottom and making watering points at the underwater section of the gas pipeline are punished with fines. 5 thousand rubles.
Security zones in the design of gas pipelines: land acquisition and arrangement
The rules for the protection of gas distribution networks will help determine which security zone of the pipeline should be applied in each particular case. Usually this documentation along with other permissions is provided by the designers. The question of who will coordinate the project with the services that operate the networks, as well as with local authorities, is determined by the contract for the production of works. The organization performing the project must have a license for these types of work.
The first step in creating a security zone is the execution of an enforcement survey. Its main purpose is to verify the correctness of bindings and their compliance with project documentation.
The result of this survey are the refined coordinates of the characteristic points of the finished route, the location, number and geometry of the elements and parts of the pipeline, as well as the established regulatory points, gauges, hydraulic fracturing and GRU, supports and other structures.
Security zones for gas distribution networks are determined by the Rules, approved by Government Decree No. 878 of November 20, 2000.
Protection zones of gas mains are regulated by the Rules approved by the Ministry of Fuel and Energy on April 29, 1992 and by the State Technical Inspection (No. 9) on April 22, 1992.
The result of these works is a map or plan for this land management facility, which is subject to coordination with the owners or users of the land plots along which the gas pipeline passes. One copy of the land management case for this site is transferred to the state land registry authorities.