Red Sea (Egypt) - a unique ecosystem

Anonim

The subject of this article will be the beautiful and unique Red Sea. Egypt, Jordan, Israel, Sudan and several other countries border its shores. Many of these countries, due to their well-developed infrastructure, are tourist Mecca, especially during the winter period. And what is the uniqueness of this area? And why is it called so - the Red Sea? What is the climate and the underwater world?

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Water area formation

Red Sea is relatively young. It was formed only twenty-five million years ago as a result of a tectonic fault. Plates - African and Arabian - continue their drift from each other. From this movement, the Red Sea is expanding tirelessly, with the speed of a meter per century. Egypt, Sudan and Eritrea are removed from those located on the eastern coast of Yemen and Saudi Arabia. Geologists have calculated that after thousands of years, the Black Continent, as a result of the deepening of the fault, will change its shape: the Great Lakes will disappear, and the Horn of Africa will go under water. But so far the water area is considered the inland sea of ​​the Indian Ocean. The tectonic rift (axial trog) reached a depth of three kilometers, but the sea is replete with shallows, so its average depth is only 440 meters.

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Why is it so called

The etymology of the name of this water area still causes a lot of controversy. The most obvious conclusion is the seasonal algal bloom, which for a short time turns the azure waters to a reddish-brown color. But this too prosaic reason does not satisfy scientists. There is an opinion that the water area is named after the Semitic tribe of the Himyarites living in South Arabia. Because of them, the Arabs began to call the sea “Bahr al-Ahmar”, which also means “red”. There is another explanation given by the Bible. The Jews for a long time were in Egyptian slavery. Moses raised his people and led them to search for the Promised Land. After long wanderings, the Red Sea seemed to them. Egypt, the land of slavery, was behind, and in front - an insurmountable obstacle. But Moses prayed to God, and the waters parted. The eyes appeared red coral reef cliffs. The Israelites traveled this path, and the waves closed over the heads of the Egyptian persecutors. From their blood the sea and got its name. So says the legend.

Geography

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Before us is a map of the Red Sea. Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Israel and Jordan are located along the banks. The sea is the official border between Asia and Africa. The narrow fault of tectonic origin stretches for a thousand kilometers from north to south. The Suez Canal, connecting the Red Sea with the Mediterranean, is rather narrow and blocked by gateways. There is no water exchange through it. The only connection with the World Ocean is the Bab el-Mandeb Channel (the translation of this geographical name is rather poetic - “Gate of Tears”). Just look at the map to notice that not a single river flows into the Red Sea. This determines the uniqueness of the water area. Without the supply of fresh water and huge evaporation in a tropical climate, the Red Sea has a large salinity - 41 ppm in summer and 37 in winter, when rare rains occur. For comparison: the average salinity of the oceans is 34 ppm, the Black Sea is 18, the Baltic (the freshest) is only 5.

Climate

Most of the water area lies in the tropical belt. Only in the far north reigns Mediterranean climate. Therefore, one of the popular destinations for winter holidays is the Red Sea. Egypt and Jordan have long been loved by our tourists, especially since the flight there for a short time is only four hours. The hot sun and great depth of the sea does not allow the water temperature to drop below the mark of +20 o C even in the coldest month - January. And in summer, the heat here is truly African - +35 … + 40 o C. Sometimes the thermometer jumps even to +50 o C. And the water temperature in the hottest month - August is very comfortable - + 27 o C. Egypt resorts on Red the sea is diverse and allows you to relax well to different categories of tourists There is an opinion that there are only two of them - Hurghada and Sharm el-Sheikh. But in reality these are large resort agglomerates, stretching along the coast for many hundreds of kilometers. El Gouna is a wonderful romantic place, and Safaga treats arthritis. In Naama Bay, young people are having fun, in richer Sharm el-Sheikh, the richer people rest in Hurghada - poorer, and Dahab and Marsa Alam are a paradise for divers and surfers.

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Underwater world

The constantly high temperature of the water causes a huge variety of flora and fauna of this area. Along the shores stretch extensive coral reefs. About a thousand tropical species of fish of various shapes and colors inhabit the Red Sea. Sharks, rays and predatory moray eels slide between reefs in search of prey. These fish, if not teased, do not pose a great danger to humans. At the surface, you can see several species of dolphins, but the small inhabitants of coral reefs - fish bearing such eloquent names as clown, butterfly, napoleon, angel, sultan - bring fame to the Red Sea.

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