- We will be defined with concepts
- Why does society need a politician?
- Political system
- Institutional subsystem
- Communicative subsystem
- Cultural and ideological subsystem
- Regulatory subsystem
- Politics and public life
In news programs and analytical materials we constantly hear about politics. She is present everywhere. Even people who are not at all interested in the problems of the world and the state will not hide from it anywhere. And what is the role of politics in society? Is it possible to do without it? Let's see.
We will be defined with concepts
Understand what role politics plays in society is impossible without the interpretation of terms. Often people are confused precisely because their concepts are far from scientific. The word "politics" is of Greek origin. It literally means "the art of governing the state." It arose when the rich and the poor appeared, the enlightened class stood out and rose above the rest of the citizens. That is, politics is a kind of superstructure over society. It consists in the birth, development and implementation of ideas that lead to certain changes. It should be noted that at present the policy is usually divided into external and internal. The latter affects the situation in one country, pushes its development. External - is aimed at regulating interstate relations. These two directions somehow influence the life of an ordinary person. The place of politics in the life of society is sometimes difficult to determine for a non-specialist. After all, most of the processes take place in government bodies. Citizens face real politics during election campaigns. But this is only the tip of the iceberg. In fact, the role of the state, and, consequently, politics is great in almost all spheres of life. Whether it is the construction of enterprises, the regulation of wages, the work of housing and communal services or cultural events, there is an organizational and managerial element everywhere.
Why does society need a politician?
Any tool as comprehensive as it is considered that has its own functions. Without identifying them, it is impossible to understand the role that politics plays in society. After all, we can not see the deep foundations of the functioning of the state. The policy functions are diverse:
- determination of the main goals and directions of development;
- the organization of the work of society to achieve them;
- distribution of resources (material, human, spiritual);
- identifying and coordinating the interests of the subjects of the process;
- development of standards of conduct and their implementation;
- security (of any kind);
- familiarizing people with management processes;
This list can be expanded by decoding each of the items. In practice, they are complex and multifaceted. For each is the work of the relevant services, institutions and organizations. But already from the above list it is clear what role politics plays in the life of society. You can answer short - the most important.
It should be noted that state systems are different. From this depends directly on how society, politics and government interact. For example, the socialist system is very different from the slave or capitalist. Goals are set that are incommensurable in scale and importance to the citizen. Science divides political systems into authoritarian, democratic, and totalitarian. Each in its own way organizes management, implements the functions of the state, its interaction with the population. The political system is divided into:
- cultural and ideological.
They characterize the degree and nature of the relationship between power structures and society. Subsystems include organizations, government services and institutions, as well as citizens. Let's consider them.
Surely this term is not clear to everyone. Let's push aside the word “institute”. It denotes a higher education institution, but also a special institution engaged in scientific research. It turns out we have a kind of structure that performs a number of functions, among which we highlight the organizational and idea-forming. When a society is considered in politics, the first thing they talk about is this subsystem. It includes political parties, social movements and the state. Their common goal is the exercise of power, at the legislative level. It is clear that the state, as a system, makes political decisions and implements them. Parties and movements influence the activity of the latter, based on the views of their supporters. They take an active part in the formation of legislative structures. There are structures included in the institutional subsystem that are not involved in political life. Take, for example, trade unions. They do not claim power, do not fight for it. But certain tasks in society solve. There are many such organizations.
This institution has the broadest powers. After all, he, as a rule, concentrates and realizes power in society. Its functions are very diverse. This is due to the fact that the state relies on the majority of the people and expresses their interests. It creates special institutions, management apparatus and coercion. State policy should be consistent with the aspirations and hopes of the people, be aimed at creating conditions for the realization of the potential of society. Otherwise, a crisis situation may arise in the country. In other words, a different political force will destroy the state in order to create another, more responsive to the demands of the population. To prevent this from happening, a consensus between political forces is needed. It is provided by the main parties that have supporters among the majority of the population. The state writes the rules and principles of the functioning of the entire political system. That is, it is engaged in legislative activity, regulates the work of public organizations, up to their prohibition. The criterion for such decisions is the same - the safety of the population in any field. To implement its own tasks, the state has enormous resources. In addition, it should unite (integrate) society, unite around itself, like at the core, all other institutions.
It is impossible to assess the essence of the influence of politics on the life of society, if we consider it homogeneous. In any country there are strata and populations. They have different interests, they unite in organizations or parties that put forward their own demands. The totality of the relationship between such entities is called the communicative subsystem. It is a special normative acts and the norms adopted in society regulate the relations of subjects, to which the individual person applies. The purpose of the interaction of public organizations, parties, citizens - the impact on power in order for the latter to take into account their needs in their activities. That is, population groups are fighting for their own interests. And the state is called upon to balance them, taking into account, whenever possible, in making power decisions.
Cultural and ideological subsystem
Not only laws affect society. There is still a whole layer of ideological attitudes, on which people are accustomed to rely, developing an attitude toward power. These include cultural values and ethical norms, attitudes and prejudices. Surely you yourself noticed that some slogans promoted by political forces did not find sympathy among the citizens, did not arouse interest. But then an idea will arise and how the fire spreads everywhere. It just responds to the aspirations of the people, relies on a set of attitudes that people accept as natural. The political culture of any society is based on the generated by generations, ingrained images, called stereotypes. They occupy a special role in the political culture, as they are introduced very deeply and are difficult to change. For example, monarchical ideas still have many supporters in Russia, although almost a hundred years have passed since the fall of the tsarist regime.
This is perhaps the most understandable of all the constituent parts of politics. It is a collection of laws. It also includes institutions and organizations that perform the control function. As a rule, the state produces norms. They are mandatory for the whole society. Democracies may transfer some rights to initiate lawmaking to citizens or their associations.
Politics and public life
The structure of the state is such that any of its segments cannot work and exist separately. Everything is interconnected. A tool that allows the objects of realization of power to find a consensus is politics. We can safely conclude that no one can manage without its influence. And this fact does not depend on the desire of the individual. As they say, to live in society and to be free from it does not work. What sphere take, the policy is present everywhere. Do you go to the store, work or sit at home. Nearby invisibly there is a state and other participants of the political system.