- MLRS as a type of weapon
- Hold leadership
- Shooting distance
- Tornado Range
- General scheme
For many decades, the Grad installation adopted in 1963 had no equal in combat qualities, simplicity and reliability - the main traditional indicators of Russian weapons. Despite the further development of the concept of multi-rocket artillery, expressed in the appearance of the "Hurricane" and "Smerch", it remained the most common in the Soviet Army and in the former Soviet Union after its collapse, and far beyond. However, time is inexorable, as is progress in the field of military equipment. The Tornado salvo-fire system should soon come to replace the familiar BM-21. The characteristics of the new model are superior to the “Gradovskiy” ones, but the amount that the rearmament will cost will also be impressive. How justified is this measure of increasing Russia's defense capability? This question requires a detailed answer.
MLRS as a type of weapon
Everyone knows about the Katyushas, the famous Guards mortars, at least in our country. They showed their formidable temper in the summer of 1941 and throughout the entire war they terrified the soldiers of the Wehrmacht and the armies of the allies of fascist Germany. However, rocket systems appeared much earlier. For example, during the siege of Odessa (1854), a squadron of Anglo-French expeditionary forces fired at the city not only with cannonballs, but also missiles. These missiles did not inflict great damage, but this fact did take place, and even then this weapon was not a novelty; it suffices to recall the ancient Chinese history of wars. The thing is how much agreed volley. Only in the case of a heap of hit and cover goals, it becomes effective. Katyusha beat on the squares, then “Grad”, “Smerch” and “Hurricane”. Currently, the most modern is the Tornado salvo-fire system, which has already begun to enter service. Each such MLRS costs the budget 32 million rubles. And it is worth it.
Russia is the birthplace of multiple rocket launchers. They turned out to be such an effective type of armament that even now the question of recognizing them as a means of mass destruction is being discussed, and some countries refuse to use them. Whether it comes to international treaties to limit the number of MRLs, is unknown. Most likely, the probability of this event is unlikely. The fact is that, despite the great successes in this area made by Soviet designers, their current Russian colleagues cannot rest on their laurels. Both in the West and in the East unsuccessful attempts are being made to create weapons for work “by squares”. The new Tornado salvo fire system should be the answer to attempts to circumvent Russia in the question in which it is traditionally considered to be the leader.
MLRS as a type of weapons have a number of flaws, one of which (and perhaps the most important) is their visibility during the shooting. The noise of rocket engines and columns of smoke unmask the battery. There are two ways out of this problem. You can make a "maneuver wheels" and quickly leave the position in order to avoid retaliation, or provide sufficient for the invulnerability of the firing range. It is the second way that Western designers are trying to achieve impunity. Foreign top of multiple launch rocket systems in range is as follows:
1. WS-2D (People's Republic of China) - 200 km.
2. M270 MLRS (USA) - 140-300 km, with a standard projectile - 40 km.
3. Lynx (Israel) - up to 150 km.
4. Astros-II (Brazil) - up to 90 km.
5. LARS-2 (Germany) - 25 km.
6. Type 75 (Japan) - 15 km.
The Chinese MLRS with a record-breaking salvo range also has the largest caliber of projectile (425 mm).
How successful will the Tornado salvo system be in the case of a direct fire duel with foreign opponents? Its characteristics slightly exceed the indicators of the well-known “Grad”, at least at first glance. However, not everything is so simple, the distance of the shot depends on the type of projectile.
Simple comparison of numbers explains little. Firstly, at present, only one modification is in service with the Russian Army - the Tornado-G. The rocket launcher of this type is designed for the use of 122-mm missiles, but in addition to it there are other MLRS that have the indices "U" (220 mm) and "C" (300 mm). All three samples have a high degree of versatility, allowing the use of both standard ammunition designed for Gradov, Uragans and Smerches, as well as special, having a two and a half times longer range. And this is something.
The Tornado salvo-fire system is a modular design mounted on a BAZ-6950 four-wheel wheeled vehicle. Modification "C" is equipped with two blocks of six trunks, and "G" - fifteen barrels, also two. This is the 2B17 machine, but for its effective use as part of a division, something else is needed. Charging is performed by special transporters (TZM), fire control is carried out by the Kapustnik-BM complex. The main system providing the guaranteed goal coverage is the Usun-R automated control, guidance and fire system. It is thanks to her that the Tornado salvo-fire system with a crew of two people can open fire in just fifty seconds after finding a target or receiving information about it.
Traditionally, the MLRS fire NURSami, that is, unguided rockets. This achieves the main advantage of the type of weapons - low cost and massive destruction. But such an economy turns into a high dispersion, because in its essence the NURS differs little from its ancient Chinese ancestors. There are peculiar standards, according to which a 200-meter deviation is allowed at a 100-kilometer distance. The creators of the Soz "Tornado-G" showed a slightly different approach. The salvo fire system has ammunition with individual target designation, capable of changing the trajectory in a limited way, ensuring that it hits a point that requires special accuracy (for example, a tank or a strong point of defense). Adjust the fire of the UAV or satellite navigation.
Given the rapid demasking of the MLRS after the first launch, it was necessary to provide for the possibility of instantaneous evacuation of equipment and calculation. The Tornado salvo-fire system can start moving even when the shells fired by it have not reached the target and are in flight, as the guidance system provides accuracy that guarantees a low probability of the need for re-launch.
Cross-country chassis allows you to drive on a highway at a speed of 85 km / h. Over rough terrain, of course, it moves more slowly, but mobility is quite sufficient to get out of the zone of retaliatory lesion. Only half a minute is required to prepare for the next Tornado salvo. The volley fire system, whose performance characteristics significantly exceed the indicators and parameters of the “Grad”, also has a higher degree of invulnerability and secrecy.
The general public is aware that there are currently several units of the latest technology in the 8th separate artillery regiment of the MLRS located in the Crimea. The first division to receive these systems was the 944th Guards Regiment located in Volgograd. In total, the Russian Army has a few dozen (reliably aware of thirty-six) Tornado-G. The volley fire system enters the military units, in which the planned replacement of Gradov, Tornadoes and Hurricanes takes place with a high-tech novelty. This is also the gradual retraining of personnel, who will have to master modern guidance and fire control systems, work out the coordination of actions and the exchange of information flows in conditions close to combat. At the same time, work continues on improving the design of the MLRS. In particular, to improve accuracy in the short term, it is planned to use special reconnaissance projectiles that can hover in the air and adjust the shooting parameters in automatic mode. It is also possible remote antitank and anti-personnel mining of the area using Tornado missiles. Experts believe that the use of installations for launching guided missiles, including cruise missiles, is a promising area of work, which indicates a high degree of universality of the new MLRS.