- Geographical position
- History of settlement
- Features of life on Sakhalin
- Administrative division
- Interesting Facts
A unique part of Russia, its most eastern territory, is the Sakhalin Region. The capital, the city of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, is located on the largest island of the region and is located 6, 660 km from Moscow. We will tell about the peculiarities of the region and its capital, about how it lives there.
The Sakhalin region, whose geography is unique, is the only Russian region located entirely on the islands. It consists of the island of Sakhalin, two ridges of the Kuril Islands, the Islands of Tyuleni and Moneron. The region borders with the Khabarovsk and Kamchatka regions, as well as with Japan. The shores of the islands of the region are washed by the waters of the Pacific Ocean, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Sea of Japan. The total area of the region is 87 thousand square meters. km The islands on which the region extends are of volcanic-tectonic origin and, therefore, their relief is very uneven. Almost all the coast of the islands are rocky, steep, only a few bays have a low, gentle slope to the water. High seismic activity is maintained in the region, therefore the relief and outlines of the islands continue to change. The nature of the Sakhalin region is harsh, but diverse. There are many rivers and lakes here, almost 1.5 thousand different plants grow, many native animals live, such as bear, musk deer, hare, fox, sable and others.
History of settlement
Until the 12th century, the history of the territories, which today occupies the Sakhalin region, is shrouded in mystery. In the 12th century, the Japanese landed here for the first time from Hokkaido and found settlements of indigenous peoples: Ainu and Nivkhi. Once, about 60 thousand years ago, Sakhalin had a land connection with the mainland and the island of Hokkaido. But the ocean absorbed this territory, and about 10 thousand years ago the islands were cut off from the "mainland". The Japanese, Mongols and Chinese occasionally swam here, but they did not stay here, the conditions were too harsh. In the 13th century, the Mongols made a whole series of attempts to conquer these lands, and they finally managed to place their garrisons here. European expeditions sail past the islands occasionally. In the 17th century, the Japanese made the first attempts to penetrate Sakhalin, they made the first maps of the islands. At the same time, the first Russian expeditions are heading here.
At the end of the 17th century, Sakhalin fell under the protectorate of Manchuria, and the Russian government has to come to terms with this state of affairs. At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, the Russian Empire once again made a whole series of attempts to seize the islands: from diplomatic negotiations to military conflicts. In 1850, G. Nevelsky hoisted the Russian flag over Sakhalin. At the end of the 19th century, the largest penal servitude of the empire was being built here, in 1882 the future capital of the Sakhalin Region, then the village of Vladimirovka, appeared. In 1904, the Japanese seized Sakhalin, and according to the results of the Russo-Japanese War, Russia lost part of the territory of the Sakhalin Region. Only after World War II did Russia manage to reclaim these lands. And today the hidden conflict between Russia and Japan over the Kuril Islands continues.
Sakhalin region is in a zone of moderate monsoon climate. The average annual temperature is minus 4 degrees. In the north of the region, the climate is more severe, with long wet winters and short summers. In the south, where the capital of the Sakhalin region is located, winter is milder, and in summer the air warms up to 15-19 degrees Celsius. Winter in the region is snowy, with a large number of blizzards, it lasts from late November to early April. Cool summer begins in June and ends in August. Also, the region is characterized by long transitional periods in spring and autumn. There is a lot of rainfall (about 900 mm per year) in all seasons, the driest month is January. The proximity of the cold Sea of Okhotsk does not allow the air in the region to get very warm, therefore it is always colder here than in other regions at the same latitudes.
Features of life on Sakhalin
Official statistics provides general information about the Sakhalin region, which suggests that the region is in the stage of economic growth, that there are good prospects for development. But local residents say that living on Sakhalin is not easy. The island position and the harsh climate determine that almost all the goods here are imported, and this immediately affects their price. The climate with the habit can seem very bad, although the indigenous population says that it has its advantages. For example, summer is perceived as a special value, so they are able to rejoice here. The main advantage of the region is the unprecedented beauty of nature, excellent fishing, hunting. The Sakhalin region, the cities and areas of which are located in the zone of state subsidies, has a fairly high standard of living, although the prices here are, of course, rather big. The southern part of the area provides quite comfortable, although specific conditions for living. But the north of the region is a place only for extreme lovers.
In 2011, the government of the Sakhalin Region approved a new division of the region into districts. In total, 17 districts, 1 city of regional subordination, 2 cities of regional significance, and one urban-type settlement and a rural okrug are allocated here. There are 15 cities, 5 towns and 242 villages in the region.
The region is governed by the government of the Sakhalin region, which is headed by the governor. It is the highest executive authority. Legislative power belongs to the Sakhalin Oblast Duma. Locals say that administrative management is felt only in cities, in the depths of the region and especially in the north, people live almost autonomously. This is due to the fact that some localities are in such hard-to-reach places that no authority can simply get there.
The capital of the Sakhalin Region is located in the southeast of the main island, 25 km from the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk. Nearly 200 thousand people live here, the population density is 1.1 thousand people. on apt. km, while in the region this figure is 5, 5 people per square meter. km The capital of the Sakhalin Region, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, is the largest city in the region and its economic center. The city includes several villages, the total area of the district is almost 1000 square meters. km The main industrial and commercial companies of the region are concentrated in the city. It is here that the locals can find work; in the rest of the region, the workplaces are not good. The cost of apartments in the capital of the region is high, because construction is conducted poorly. All this leads to the fact that young people often prefer to go to the mainland.
Sakhalin is a unique territory, there are real legends about it. In reality, it is the largest island belonging to Russia. In Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk and some other cities you can see Japanese-built houses. The city is dominated by Japanese cars, the most popular model is the SUV. Sakhalin can only be reached by air or water. In winter, there are periods when there is no transport connection with the islands.