Albanian President: A Long Road to Democracy

Anonim

How unpleasant it is for Albanians, but their homeland has always been on the sidelines of history and geopolitics. However, the very "biography" of this state can hardly be called calm. Boiling passions do not contribute to the democratic system, the hallmark of which is considered to be the institution of the presidency. In Albania, the presidency appeared only in the last decade of the last century.

In the net of slavery

Skipares (the self-name of Albania in the Albanian language) did not have its own statehood for centuries. Except, of course, ancient Illyria, conquered by Rome. Further, if there were any state formations, it was difficult to call them independent. The power of Rome, then the Byzantine Empire, the post-Byzantine city-states, then the Serbian and Bulgarian principalities and kingdoms, then the subjection of Venice and, it would seem, the eternal yoke of the Ottoman Empire. What kind of democracy is there?

Rudiments of democracy

However, the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire as a result of defeat in the First World War made it possible to actually liberate the country. In fact, the first leader of Albania in 1912 was Ismail Kemali, who made a political and administrative career back in the Ottoman Empire. He did not have the title of president, but in fact he was acting as prime minister during the transitional period.

President is king

Image

As a result of the first democratic elections, Ahmet Zogu became the first president of Albania. The representative of the Albanian elite, in whose veins flowed the blue blood of the half-legendary hero of Albania, Shkenderbey. Shkanderbey himself did not have the throne, but, apparently, his blood turned the descendant, who considered that the monarchy in his person would be a blessing for Albania. With the help of the Russian White Guard officers, the first president accomplished a military coup and became the first and only king of the Albanians. Nevertheless, the activity of Zoga the First is assessed positively. Internal political squabble in the country has decreased, a clear development program has been formed, which has been carried out. Alas, the Albanian monarchy ended with the Italian occupation.

Communists in power

During the Second World War, the Communist Party of Albania became the most active and active political force in the country. It was she who formed the partisan detachments, which gradually acquired an army structure. With the expulsion of the Italians and those who came to retain the positions of the Germans that had left Italy, the Communists came to power in the country. The conflict with the Soviet Union forced the Communist Party to change its name to the Labor Party, whose leader, with the title of Chairman of the National Assembly, became head of state. There were only three of them. The first two are very respected people. And the second one - Haji Leshi - went from the National hero to the life convicted for crimes against humanity, as he became a kind of Soviet Beria (in the photo below Lesha among his comrades).

Image

The third - Ramiz Aliya - was also the first president of democratic Albania, and in itself was an attempt by communist socialists to remain in power.

In search of harmony

The difficult economic and social situation of Albania does not allow the country to find a balance in everything. After the serious turmoil in the country that led to a change in political course, the presidents change each other, mostly alternating in the order "democrat - socialist". Adjusting life in the country is not fully possible either for the right or the left. Now in power, a representative of the party of a moderate socialist sense.

List of presidents

NameYears of lifeTime of governmentThe consignmentPre-presidential and post-presidential career
Ahmet Zogu10/8/1895 - 04/09/19611925-1928Non-partisan with monarchical viewsBefore: Governor of the city of Mati, Governor of Shkodra, Minister of the Interior of Albania, Minister of War of Albania, Prime Minister of Albania. After: accomplished a military coup and usurped power with the title of King of Albanians.
Ramiz Aliya10/18/1925 - 10/7/20111991–92Socialist PartyDo: third chairman of the National Assembly of Albania, first secretary of the Central Committee of the Albanian Party of Labor.
Sali Berisha10/15/19441992–97Democratic PartyBefore: head of the Democratic Party. Post: Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Albania
Recep Meidani08/17/19441997-2002Socialist Party

Before: Dean of the Faculty of Natural Sciences of the Tirana University, Head of the Central Election Commission, member of the Presidential Council, Chairman of the Albanian Human Rights Council, Secretary General of the Socialist Party.

Alfred moisio12/1/19292002–07Democratic Party

Before: Deputy Minister of Defense of Albania, Minister of Defense of Albania, Advisor to the Minister of Defense of Albania, President of the Pro-war Bloc of the Albanian-North Atlantic Association. Post: Member of the European Council for Tolerance and Mutual Respect

Bamir Topi04.24.19572007-12Democratic Party

Do: Minister of Agriculture and Food of Albania, Member of the Assembly of Albania, Vice-Chairman of the Democratic Party, Honorary President of the Tirana Football Club.

Buyar Nishani09/29/19662012-17Democratic Party

Do: Minister of the Interior of Albania, Minister of Justice of Albania.

Ilir Meta03/24/1969since 2017Socialist Integration Movement

Do: Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Albania, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Albania, Speaker of the National Assembly of Albania, Founder and Leader of the Socialist Integration Movement Party.

Residence

The residence of the President of Albania is located in the capital Tirana.

Image

Until democratic times, the functions of the head of Albania, as an independent state, were performed by the following people.

Prime Minister Acting Head of Albania

NameYears of lifeTime of governmentThe consignmentCareer (before and after)
Ismail Kemali1/16/1944 - 01/24/19191912 - 14NonpartisanDo: governor of several Balkan cities of the Ottoman Empire, governor of Beirut, chairman of the Ottoman National Assembly, initiator of the Declaration of Independence of Albania.

King of albanians

NameYears of lifeTime of governmentThe consignmentCareer (before and after)
Zog I (Ahmet Zogu)10/8/1895 - 04/09/19611928 - 39NonpartisanBefore: see the presidents.

Chairman of the Presidium of the National Assembly of Albania (socialist period)

NameYears of lifeTime of governmentThe consignmentCareer (before and after)
Omer NishaniFebruary 5, 1887 – May 26, 19541946–53Albanian Party of LaborPrior: Head of the Anti-Fascist Council, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Albania.
Haji Leshi10/19/1913 - 1/1/19981953–82Albanian Party of LaborBefore: commander of the national liberation army of Albania, awarded the title People's Hero, Minister of the Interior of Albania. After: sentenced to life imprisonment for crimes against humanity, released for health reasons.
Ramiz Aliya10/18/1925 - 10/7/20111982–1991Albanian Party of LaborSee in the presidents.

Ilir Mehta - Albanian President Now

July 24, 2017 after the next democratic parliamentary elections (presidential elections in Albania are not nationwide - only members of parliament have such a right) Ilir Mehta took the presidential oath.

Who is Meta? The answer is in a long interview on the TV channel "Russia 24".

Image

Albanian President (photo below) Meta is an experienced state official with extensive connections.

Image

He has a good economic education. When he was a lecturer, he lectured at leading universities in the world, such as Harvard University and the London School of Economics. Fluent in Italian and English. He is married, has a son and two daughters, as well as the hope of the entire Albanian people that he will become the first president of the country, who will manage to bring Albania out of the eternal crisis.

Interesting Articles

Proverbs about evil make us wiser

Tank A-32: on the history of creation and tactical and technical characteristics

Population Novotroitsk: number, dynamics and employment

Where is the grave of Yesenin? Monument at the grave of Yesenin