What are democratic values? All modern politics, as well as international relations literally revolve around this concept. Numerous political opponents in various states constantly blame each other for the lack of democracy. Most developed
The modern world states are countries with a democratic regime. At the same time, states that have other principles of governance and values become outcasts. Democratic regimes, in the opinion of Francis Fukuyama, a prominent modern thinker, are not only the most progressive in the modern world, but also ideal forms of government. And this view today really has many supporters. After all, democratic regimes actually demonstrate the greatest productivity and efficiency.
Ancient origins of democracy
The idea of democracy is a primordially European product. Its first implemented version were the policies of ancient Greece, where government bodies
(Areopagus, Bule, Archon's councils) were elected by voting, and the most important decisions for cities were made by the whole people. It is interesting that even a procedure was invented here that is a de facto preventive measure to protect the democratic regime of the polis state - ostracism. Many achievements of the ancient Greek civilization were later picked up by the Romans. Including the idea of democracy here has acquired new forms. It was in the Roman Republic that the concept of citizenship was born, which is close to modernity. In addition, here for the first time in the world, the idea of separation of branches of power arose and was realized - without which such a form of government is unthinkable today.
Democratic regimes in the New time
With the fall of ancient civilization, many of its achievements, including in political thought, were permanently lost. Once again, the ideas of democratic governance began to emerge and develop by progressive thinkers of the New Age: Hobbes, Montesquieu, Rousseau, Locke, and others. During this period, among other proposals of the philosophers of the era, important ideas about the so-called "social contract" arise. For the first time since time immemorial
monarchs claim to absolute power began to be questioned. By the way, the emergence of ideas about democracy and power also influenced the emergence of national communities, as we know them today. The most important moment in the formation and design of the modern world order was the Great French Revolution that occurred in 1789. According to its results, for the first time in Europe, the monarch was overthrown as such. Of course, this episode was only the beginning of a long journey, when previously inviolable kings and dynasties gave up their positions, and confidence in their natural and civil rights was strengthened in the mass consciousness of European nations. Progress still had to contend with the reaction in the next XIX and XX centuries. Democratic regimes, one after another established first in Europe and then around the world.