- origin of name
- Source and estuary
- Characteristics of the channel
- River valley
- Tributaries of the Psekups River
- Flora and fauna
Psekups is a large mountain river in the North Caucasus, flowing through the territories of the Krasnodar Territory and the Republic of Adygea. The length of this waterway is 146 km, and the basin area is 1, 430 km². In the river valley of Psekups there is a large resort town Hot Key.
origin of name
Psekups has two generally accepted translations:
- "a river abundant in water";
- "blue water".
Both interpretations are repelled by the Adyg language. The traditional definition in the local lore literature indicates the second translation variant - “blue water”. Indeed, the river has just such a color due to the large number of sulphurous sources located along the course.
A less common interpretation is the “Black Valley Valley River”, where the word “Psekups” is divided into 3 fragments: “pseudo”, “kyo” and “dogs”. There is a version where the hydronym dates back to the ancient language of the Meotians, who lived in the lower reaches of the Kuban during the early Middle Ages.
Another theory of the origin of the name is repelled by the Adyg “Psekuupse”, where “kuu” means “deep” and “pse” means a river. That is, hydronym translates as "deep river". At present, such a characteristic goes against the state of the channel of a highly pulverized water artery.
Source and estuary
The waters of the Psekups River originate in the Tuapse region, on the northeastern side of the Lysaya Mountain, which belongs to the Main Caucasus Range. The height of the source above sea level is 974 meters. Not far from this place is the mountain range Kalachi, through which the railway tunnel was made to the city of Tuapse.
The mouth of the river Psekups is located near the Pchegaltukai aul, Krasnodar reservoir. The place is located at the entrance to the capital of the Krasnodar Territory. Since the reservoir was built on the basis of the Kuban River, the Psekups is considered to be its left tributary. The mouth is located opposite the eastern outskirts of Krasnodar.
The Psekups river valley affects the territories of two districts of the Krasnodar Territory (Tuapse and Goryachi Klyuchestky) and the Adygeya Republic. In the projection on the settlements, the river passes along the following route:
- the beginning (source) - 5 kilometers from the village of the village of Sadovy;
- the territory of Goryachy Klyuch district;
- crossing the border with Adygea - 3 kilometers north of the village Molkino;
- the mouth is 4 kilometers from the village of Novochepashy (Adygea).
The upper reaches of the Psekups River are located in the mountain zone, which begins above the line of the Kutais village, located near the Hot Key. This part of the bed abounds in canyons and waterfalls. The coastal relief of Psekups in the upper reaches is represented by a forested zone of mountains, which are cut by water and beamed valleys.
The ridges located above Goryachy Klyuch form a powerful complex composed of a special type of geological rock, flysch.
Characteristics of the channel
The Psekups river is quite narrow. At the widest point (in the area of the Abadkhezskaya mountain) the distance between the banks is 70 m. For the rest of the channel, this parameter varies from 5 to 35 m. In the mountainous part, the river is the narrowest, in the lower reaches it becomes much wider. Just before flowing into the Krasnodar reservoir, the waters of Psekups are bottled at 200-800 meters.
Previously, the river was considered affluent, but now very shallow. The deepest areas (3-8 meters) are located below the village Molkino. Here the river valley is more affluent, especially in spring. However, for the most part, the Psekups river is shallow. In some areas it is so shallow that the channel can be easily crossed ford.
River valley Psekups conditionally divided into three terraces:
- the first flood plain (has a height of one and a half to two meters above the low-water level of the river);
- the second (height is 9 meters above the minimum level);
- the third is the highest relative to the waters during the low-flow period (up to 15 meters).
In the upper reaches, the valley is rather narrow and is characterized by a mountainous landscape with dense forest vegetation. The expansion starts just above the Hot Key. Before entering the city, the river spreads a bit to form glades.
Even wider is the valley after the passage of the so-called Volch Gate, the site located between the Kotkh and Pshat ranges. Next begins the flat part of Psekups, which is characterized by a slow current. The valley here periodically changes the landscape from forest to agricultural (tobacco plantations). Coastal zone is periodically framed by low hills.
The Psekups valley in the Adyghe people received a special name - Massir, which literally means Egypt. The reason for this name was the fertility of the river basin zone.
The Psekups river has a mixed supply with a predominance of sedimentary (rainwater). The contribution of the latter is 70% of the annual flow. A smaller role in the replenishment of the Psekups is played by tributaries and groundwater. The level of the river is unstable and is characterized by a flood regime.
The amount of water consumption Psekups varies throughout the year. The average value is 20 cubic meters per second, and the maximum value is about 1, 000. The flow has a typical mountain character in the upper reaches, and in the flat part it is slow.
The freeze-up period on the Psekups river is very short (no more than 2 months, more often - about 20 days), and sometimes completely absent. This is due to the climatic features of the territories through which the river passes (winters here are short and rarely cold).
The waters of Psekups in the upper reaches are cold and clean, and when passing to the flat part they become cloudy due to the silty soil. Near sulfurous sources, the river acquires a bluish-green color and a characteristic odor.
Tributaries of the Psekups River
The tributaries of the Psekups are mainly represented by narrow small rivers teeming with waterfalls. They have a typical mountain character, characterized by rapid flow. Most tributaries flow into the Psekups on the left side. The only exception is Hatyps flowing down from the Kotch ridge.
The largest tributaries of the Psekups include:
- Big and Small Dogs;
The biggest among them are Kaverze and Chepsy. Psif is the first river flowing into the Psekups. Downstream is the mouth of the Muddy.
The first thing that the Psekups valley is famous for is the numerous mineral springs, which are of great resort and therapeutic value. Especially plentiful they go outside in the area of Mount Abadzeh. It was here that the major city of resort importance was founded - Hot Key. This town is attractive not only by mineral springs, but also by the picturesque nature with many interesting places.
Goryachy Klyuch’s most famous natural landmark is the Cockerel Rock, located on the very shore of Psekups. This huge stone sculpture reaches 28 meters in height and the base grows into the water. The top of the rock is crowned with six teeth, which resemble the crest of a rooster, from which the name originated. Gray stone contrasts with a greenish tinge of water and a rim of lush vegetation, which creates a very picturesque picture.
The upper reaches of the river are famous for their waterfalls. One of the highest in the Psekupsky basin (30 m) is located near the source and is considered a real attraction. Downstream there are several small waterfalls (3-8 m).
Flora and fauna
Flora of the Psekups Valley is represented mainly by deciduous forests with a predominance of beech, hornbeam and oak. Among woody plants also occur:
Relict pines, juniper and yew are much less common. In addition to the dominant representatives of the forest canopy, the flora of the river valley includes a great many other species. Herbaceous vegetation (violets, crested insects, lily of the valley, forest peony, primrose, etc.) is distinguished by a special diversity.
The fauna of the river valley is quite rich. Of the mammals found here:
- Noble deer;
- roe deer;
- pine marten;
- the bats;
- raccoon dog;
- wild forest cat;
- raccoon poloskun.
Very numerous representatives of birds, among which the passerines predominate. Woodpeckers are quite well represented (as many as 5 species). Buzzards and hawks can be distinguished from their birds of prey in the Psekups Valley.