- general information
- origin of name
- Population before the revolutionary time
- Population in modern times
Even the chemical plant could not spoil the picturesque landscapes and southern landscape of this city. Nevinnomyssk happily escaped the sad fate of most Russian single-industry towns. And although the town-forming enterprise "Nevinnomyssky Nitrogen" has long been not public property, but the population of Nevinnomyssk is not particularly poor only because of its work.
The city is located on the Stavropol Upland in Ciscaucasia, 55 km south of the regional center. Nevinnomyssk was built on the banks of the Kuban River and the Big Zelenchuk River that flows into it. Here begins the Nevinnomyssky canal, which supplies water from the Kuban to Bolshaya Yegorlyk.
Nevinnomyssk - a city of regional subordination. It is a major transportation hub: there is a railway and motorways to Rostov, Mineralnye Vody, Karachay-Cherkessia. The climate in the region is favorable for life, characterized by mild winters and hot summers. The picturesque woodlands, parks, planted along the rivers, are one of the favorite sights of the city and a popular resting place for citizens.
origin of name
There are several versions of the origin of the name of the city, which was named after the river on the banks of which it was built. According to one of them, the Russian military historian V. A. Potto more than 100 years ago found in the archive of Mozdok a case from 1784, in which it was written that a small river flowing into the Kuban was ordered to be called Innocent. Since the former name given by the Cossacks and soldiers who served here was indecent.
The modern researcher V. A. Kolesnikov in the monograph "The Past of the Innocent Cape" suggested that the name of the locality was given by P. S. Potemkin on a mountain towering above the modern city. In Nogai, the mountain is called Aryuv-kyz, which translates as "beautiful girl." According to legend, the local prince gave his beautiful daughter for the famous hero, whom the girl did not love. And one day she rushed off the cliff. Then people called this place Innocent Cape. Beautiful and tragic version like most of the population of Nevinnomyssk.
After the entry of the Stavropol lands into the Russian Empire, a outpost was built on the cape, later called Innocent, to control the ford. In 1825, the village of Nevinnomysskaya was founded. To protect the new lands from the raids of the Circassians, Cossacks from other Russian regions were resettled to the settlement. By 1833, the Cossack regiment numbered already 12 hundreds. In the second half of the 19th century, a railroad was laid to the village, industry began to develop.
After the revolutionary upheavals, the village began to develop rapidly, in 1929, becoming a collective farm named after V. I. Lenin. In 1939 (October 19), it was transformed into the city of Nevinnomyssk. From August 1942 to January 1943 was under the occupation of the German troops. In the 60s, Nevinnomysskaya GRES, Nevinnomyssky nitrogen-fertilizer plant and other industrial enterprises began to work in the city. In 2001, control over the oldest fertilizer producer in the country passed to the EuroChem group.
The city is notable for a stable socio-economic situation, since 2017 it has been considered one of the best monotowns in Russia. Last year, a territory of advanced development was created to reduce the dependence of the Nevinnomyssk population on the work of the city-forming enterprise.
The main enterprise of the city is the chemical plant "Nevinnomyssky Azot", the construction of which was started in 1954. In 1962, the first product was released - ammonia. The plant produces a wide range of mineral fertilizers. Other large enterprises are household chemical plants, boiler and radiator plants. The city is supplied with electricity by the Nevinnomysskaya GRES.
Population before the revolutionary time
Four years after the foundation of the village of Nevinnomysskaya, 1498 people lived in it. By 1844, the population of Nevinnomyssk reached 2025 people. This was primarily due to the resettlement of the Khoper and Volga Cossacks for protection against the Abrek raids. In subsequent years, the number of inhabitants increased due to natural growth. In the last decade of the 19th century, the number of inhabitants increased rapidly, reaching 8, 371 people in 1897. By this time, it was possible to eliminate the raids of the warrior mountaineers, the railway was built, the first factories were built. The population of Nevinnomyssk increased due to the influx of population from the central regions of Russia. In the last year before the First World War, 15 293 people lived in the village. Two years later, in 1915, the population decreased to 13, 057 people. Most of the male Cossack population was sent to fight.
Population in modern times
The first post-revolutionary years the population of Nevinnomyssk survived a civil war, repression, famine and collectivization. In the collective farm. Lenin, organized in the village in 1939, lived 23, 600 people. In the postwar years, the population began to grow rapidly due to the influx of people from other regions of the country to construction sites and industrial enterprises. In 1959, the population of Nevinnomyssk was 39, 806 people. In 1970, the number of residents for the first time exceeded 80, 000 (85, 067).
Construction and access to the design capacity of the chemical plant required the involvement of labor resources from other Russian regions. In 1975, the number of residents for the first time reached 100, 000. The population continued to increase even in the difficult 90s until 1998, when the number reached 133, 802 inhabitants. In the 21st century, the population of Nevinnomyssk gradually decreases, with the exception of 2015-2016, when there was a slight increase. According to the latest data of 2018, 117, 446 inhabitants live in the city. The main population by ethnic composition: the majority are Russians - 89.90%, then Ukrainians - 1.99%, Armenians - 1.84%.