Tropical forests are located geographically at the equator and in the tropical belt of the globe. Their distinctive feature is multi-tiered and interlacing of the branches of vegetation among themselves. Because of this, being in such a forest, it is impossible to see the sunlight. They are very rich in vegetation, especially all kinds of vines and epiphytes. The main part of them are trees, reaching a height of 40 meters. Plants are represented by more species in the amount of one and a half thousand, and there are more than 750 species of trees. The air temperature all year round is 22-32 degrees, and precipitation falls from 1, 500 to 2, 000 mm.
No biome can boast such a variety of flora and fauna as tropical forests. They are a treasure trove of all kinds of plants, including medicinal ones, but due to their inaccessibility, many of these plants have not yet been studied by botanists. An interesting fact is that all the most valuable species of trees come from such forests.
Tropical forests have given us a lot of such plants and trees, without which we can not do without, for example: bananas, coffee, citrus, tea and hevea. Unfortunately, more than half of the forests in the tropics have already been destroyed. The Congo River basin and the adjacent territories to the Amazonia, as well as the Indian jungle, have been very seriously affected by the intervention of the “master of nature” - man. Rainforests, which are more than 80 million years old, are now cut down with catastrophic speed, and if people do not change their attitude towards nature, then they can disappear forever.
The wildlife of the tropics is extremely diverse. There are about 100 species of mammals, as many reptiles, more than 400 species of birds, as well as rare amphibians. Hippopotamuses, elephants, rhinos, who are the real giants of the animal world, inhabit the tropical forests. And the monkeys! They are almost everywhere. People living next to them often suffer from the pranks of these omnipresent fidgets.
Unusual colors of hummingbirds can be found only in these places, and butterflies of almost the same size as they pollinate tropical flowers. In the rivers you can find all kinds of crocodiles, a huge number of turtles and snakes, most of which are poisonous. Of insects here you can find almost every step of ants and termites.
Tropical rainforests are common in the Amazon basin, in equatorial Africa, Indonesia, and Australia (Queensland). Up to 7, 000 mm of rain falls here annually, and the height of the trees reaches 60 meters. Tropical rainforests have from 4 to 5 tiers, each with its own inhabitants. A distinctive feature is that there are no shrubs, and the trees have a very thin bark, the soil is covered with moss, but not everywhere. The processes of decay occur very quickly due to high humidity. Nevertheless, all representatives of the flora and fauna feel great, because in the process of evolution they adapted to such conditions of life.
In tropical rain forests live animals such as: porcupines, opossums, broad-bearing monkeys, sloths, armadillos. They live only in this biome, and most of them belong to rare species.
Africa’s rainforests are located in the Congo Basin and are also endangered. They are mercilessly cut down and planted with plantations, which the owners soon abandon due to depletion of the soil. More than 25, 000 plant species grow in these forests. There are many species of climbing animals and birds in the African rainforest. These are gorillas, chimpanzees, baboons, monkeys, parrots, hoopoe. You can meet in a large number of elephants and antelopes. The rainforests of Africa inhabit the most stunted people - the pygmies. These unique representatives of homo sapiens have learned to live in full harmony with nature. They are engaged in hunting, gathering forest gifts and do not aspire to civilization. Their height reaches 1.4 meters, and they live in huts, protecting them from rain. They are characterized by permanent migration.