Dutch heights, Israel: detailed information, description and history

Anonim

The Dutch heights, or Golan, are located to the northeast and east of Lake Kinneret (Lake Tiberias) and are part of the Northern District of Israel, or rather, are controlled by this country.

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This is a disputed territory between Syria and Israel, which captured it as a result of the Six Day War, which was fought in the Middle East in 1967 from June 5th to 10th. The coalition, which included Egypt and Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Algeria, opposed Israel in this war.

Disputed territory

In fairness it must be said that historically Israel Holland heights belonged more than 3000 years and is said to have been bestowed by God. They became part of this country under King David and were part of the Holy (Promised) land.

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Syria has owned these lands, included in its province Kuneytra, only 21 years. The disputed territories were given to her as a gift from the French, who, leaving these lands due to the termination of the mandate, gave the Dutch heights of Syria solely to annoy the Israelis.

Historical name

What is this territory? From the very beginning, it should be noted that the name of the height received from the biblical city of Golan. This ancient settlement was located in Bashan, a historical region located on the east bank of the Jordan. Therefore, the correct name of these heights "Golan", and not "Dutch". Holland, whose territory is mostly located below sea level, has no heights other than sand dunes.

Borders Golan

The Golan Heights is a mountain plateau of volcanic origin, which in Israel occupies 1, 150 square kilometers. Its height is 1200 meters above sea level. The western boundary of these territories, which in the Bible is called the land of Bashan, is Lake Kinneret and the upper reaches of the Jordan, the eastern boundary is the Trachon Rock of volcanic origin and the Druze Mountains.

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The Yarmuk River is the southern border of the Golan, and on the northern side these lands are protected by the Hermon Mountains (only 7% of their total area is located in Israel). Ash-Sheikh or Hermon - the highest mountain in Israel. It reaches 2236 meters above sea level.

There is something to argue

Dutch heights are divided into the Upper and Lower Golan. Naturally, there is very little arable land in the high mountainous part, mostly herds are grazing here. But in the lower part there is a lot of land suitable for processing. They are located on numerous plains, interspersed with basalt hills. And if the Upper Golan is called the country of herds, then the Lower Golan is a country of flour, as for Israel and Syria these lands are the main breadbasket. And not only wheat is grown here, but also cotton, olives, vegetables, almonds and subtropical fruits.

Territory of war

It should be noted that the war has never bypassed the Dutch heights. Even after the death of Solomon, that is, in the X century BC, the country fell apart, and Israel (in the north) and Judea (in the south) arose. On the territory of the Golan for 200 years, there have been continuous battles between the Israeli and Aramaic kingdoms. The kingdom of Israel was periodically destroyed. So in 722 BC, Assyrians, under the command of King Tiglat-Palassar, destroyed the country.

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The Jews left their promised lands (on which there was never a long peace), but already in the middle of the first millennium BC. e., that is, during the Second Temple, the Golan were returned, but then they became part of the kingdom of Judah.

Symbol of courage

The history of the Dutch heights - the history of constant wars. In the first century of our era (67 year) the Golans captured the Romans. The Jews very courageously defended their rather well-fortified cities. Especially strong resistance was put to the Roman invaders Gamala, who was at that time the capital of Golan. The fearlessness and sacrifice of the defenders struck the Romans, and the city became for centuries the symbol of the courage of the Israeli soldiers. During the excavations that are being carried out in our time, not a single object or remnants of structures were found in these territories that would indicate the presence of someone other than Israelis in those distant times on these lands. Only synagogues or settlements of ancient Jews are found here.

The true masters of the earth

In the 4th century, the Byzantines came here, who severely persecuted the Jews, and in the 7th century these Muslim conquerors replaced these conquerors. In the XI century, battles between them and the Crusaders began. And none of the invaders cultivated these lands, except the Jews, whom the enslavers constantly expelled, and they returned again and turned the deserts into gardens. And this fate befell not only the Dutch heights. In Israel or Eretz Israel, all territories came to life and flourished when Jews settled them and turned into deserts with the arrival of the conquerors. One of the most striking examples is Gaza.

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Malaria swamps, sands and wastelands have become flowering gardens since the formation of Jewish settlements here. 35% of all Israel’s floral production comes from this territory. And here in abundance grow vegetables and fruits.

Nothing has changed in the XX century

400 years (1517-1918) Turkey owned the Golan, turning these lands into desert backyards of the empire. From 1918 to 1946, it was dominated by Britain and France, which, as noted above, by leaving “gave” the Golan to the newly emerged new state called Syria.

In 1948, Ben-Gurion proclaimed the creation of a Jewish state. And the war immediately began. After 1967, these areas of heights began to be actively settled by the Israelis, the ancient village of Katzrin was revived. A total of 34 settlements were built here, and the number of residents exceeded 20, 000 people. In 1973, Israel fought off a Syrian attack and defended the Dutch heights. But the question of how long the world came, always flew in the air. Israeli jurisdiction was extended to these lands in December 1981 by a decision of the Knesset. But officially the Golan are considered disputed territories.

Diversion

On October 3, 2015, ISIS launched an offensive at the Dutch Heights. 3, 000 militants using rocket artillery set as their goal the seizure of a former UN observation post located on Mount Cuba. The militants hit settlements of Jabat Al-Hashab and Tranj. LIH undertook this maneuver in order to divert the Syrian army and the Russian Aerospace Forces from Damascus. But today, the Syrian government army has returned all local conquests of the igilovtsy in the area.

Sights of Golan

Golan is the most remote Israeli territory and one of the most beautiful. The main attraction is the Wheel of Spirits or the Wheel of Rephaim, located 16 km from the Kinneret Lake. In its center is the mound, and the megalithic monument itself dates back to the late Neolithic era (IV-III millennium BC.)

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Mountains and waterfalls, Druze villages and ski resorts (on Mount Hermon), dolmens and ancient synagogues (for example, in Gamal), nature reserves and national parks - all this is Golan Heights (Israel). Details of the wars in these territories were outlined above.

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