Ecuador: population, pros and cons of life in the country

Anonim

According to the latest data (for 2016), the population of Ecuador is 16, 385, 068 people. That is how many people live in this South American country at the equator. Ecuador is a unique country that is washed by the Pacific Ocean in the west, bordered by Colombia and Peru. Ecuador owns the famous Galapagos Islands. Further - about all the details.

about country

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The population of Ecuador lives in a country that the equator crosses 25 kilometers north of the capital city called Quito.

In Ecuador, diverse nature. Along the Pacific coast in the west are the foothills of the Andes, and in the center - the Andes themselves, which consist of two parallel ridges with extinct and active volcanoes, which rarely, but periodically erupt. The eastern part of the state is located in the Amazon lowland.

Ecuador has long borders with Peru and Colombia, the whole country is covered by a dense network of rivers, most of them are tributaries of the Amazon. Evergreen forests, which are also called gileyami, in the north of the country are replaced by green forests, in the center - light forests and, finally, semi-deserts in the south-west.

Among animals, small deer, jaguars, wild bakers, anteaters, cougars, armadillos predominate.

National composition

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Mostly the population of Ecuador consists of three national groups. It should be noted that the boundaries between them are very conditional. The indigenous population of Ecuador is Quechua, their number is approximately 39 percent. White and brown Hispanic Ecuadorians live about 60 percent, still one percent of the so-called "forest Indians". It is worth noting that in this case the boundaries between them are very conditional.

The largest of the currently existing modern Indian peoples - Quechua. About 30 percent of all Quechua reside in Ecuador, and much of them also live in Bolivia and Peru. Quechua, who live in Ecuador, are descended from multilingual and multi-tribal groups that have embraced the culture and language of the Quechua over the past several centuries. They are mainly located in the southern regions of the country.

The forest Indians of Ecuador include all other Indian peoples who live in the country, excluding only a small number of Chibcha people, its representatives live in the mountains in the north of Ecuador. Forest Indians are located in evergreen tropical areas, maintaining tribal-tribal division. Forest Indians are divided into two largest groups. The first is hut (they are also called havaro). These include the tribes Murato, Achuale, Malakata, Uambisa - they live in the south of the country. The second group includes the Yambo and Alamo tribes, who speak dialects and variations of the Quechua language, and live in the east of Ecuador. In the past few decades, Quechua have been actively assimilating forest Indians.

Hispanic Ecuadorians are divided into several racial groups:

  • They are mestizos, descendants of the Spaniards, who over time mixed with the local Quechua, as well as other peoples that make up the population of Ecuador. Most often, they cherish the customs of both the Aborigines and the Spaniards, and many deliberately reject a specific national definition. On the coast of the Pacific Ocean they are called Montubia, mostly they live in small towns or agricultural villages. Many mestizos and montubies, who mostly move to cities, take part in rodeos and corridas.
  • Another racial group is the assimilated Indians, who also prefer to abandon national self-determination.
  • Creoles are representatives of the white population, they are descendants of Spanish-speaking whites, who call themselves Ecuadorians. They also include descendants of small diasporas of other Europeans, who retain their identity, but over time can still lose it. The descendants of the white Spaniards are located mainly on the northern coast of the province of Manabi, in the southern parts of the country and the city of Guayaquil.
  • Mulattoes, negros and sambo define their racial identification as Afro-Ecuadorians. They inhabit the northern coast of Ecuador: in the city of Guayaquil and the province of Imbabura. By this time, they almost completely assimilated due to the fact that they do not have their own language, they mostly speak Spanish with a certain accent. Afro-Ecuadorians, who live on the coast, call themselves Montubian. But at the same time they are trying to preserve identity, standing out with their own food, music, holidays, and national costumes, usually they are associated with a certain African nation.

Most Popular Racial Groups

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The most popular racial group among the population of Ecuador are mestizos. They are about 7/10 of the total population of the state. The fifth part is white, the tenth part is mulatto. At the same time, there are significantly more of the latter than in other countries in the Andean region.

Afro-Ecuadorians are considered the direct descendants of black slaves who fled from a slave ship in 1623, mingling with local Indian tribes. It is noteworthy that they lived apart for more than two hundred years, not recognizing the authority of the Spanish colonial administration.

In addition to the already listed national groups, Colombians live in Ecuador (there are up to 30 thousand), about five thousand Spaniards, Japanese and Italians, up to 15 thousand Germans, about two thousand Americans, as many Peruvians, at least three thousand Chinese, and about one thousands of jews.

Population density

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The population density in Ecuador is approximately 33 people per square kilometer. At the same time, it is distributed very unevenly throughout the territory. It is worth noting that this is one of the highest rates in all of South America. Higher only in Colombia, and on average on the continent lives about 21.5 people per square kilometer. Outsiders by this indicator include French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana and Bolivia.

In the country of Ecuador, the most populated are the mountainous and coastal areas, which are called Costa (coastal areas) and Sierra (Andes Mountains). In these places, the population density is about 60 people per square kilometer.

But in the eastern part of the country, which is called the Oriente, as well as in the central and eastern parts, which are covered with evergreen tropical forests, the density is less than one person per square kilometer. In these places, the population lives only on certain elevated places.

The population of Ecuador is more than 16 million people. Internal migration in Ecuador takes place from the western regions of the country to the eastern ones, and they also massively leave the villages to the cities. But it is worth noting that both immigration and emigration are quite small, without having a significant impact on the overall dynamics.

Recently, there has been a significant increase in the population of Ecuador, the death rate is constantly decreasing with a high birth rate. For example, only from 1950 to 1983, the population more than doubled, and if we talk only about the urban population, it increased four and a half times.

Main languages

In Ecuador, the photos of the inhabitants of which are in this article, the official language is Spanish. At the same time, a significant part of the country is bilingual.

About eight percent of the population speak two languages. So, almost all Quechua speak Spanish, which is mixed with individual words from their language. In some parts of Ecuador, Quechua is taught in general education schools, separate books are published on it, and radio and television broadcasts are broadcast on Quechua.

All this is part of the state policy for the preservation of local peoples, although because of this, many descendants of the Spanish-Métis and the Spaniards abandon their Spanish roots. For example, there are problems to celebrate the opening of America by Christopher Columbus.

Religion

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The majority of the population of Ecuador adheres to Catholicism. Mostly Catholics are Quechua. But at the same time, many of them retain elements of their former religion, which is associated with the cult of the sun. This belief is also known as Zoroastrianism. It is believed that this is one of the oldest religions of the world, which originates in the revelations of the prophet Spitama Zarathustra.

The basis of his teachings is free moral choice of good thoughts, which makes the man himself, as well as good deeds and words. In the ancient world and the era of the early Middle Ages, Zoroastrianism was widely spread in the territory of the Greater Iran, it is a historic district, which is located on the site of modern Iran.

In Zoroastrianism, there are dualistic and monotheistic features. In our time, Zoroastrianism has almost everywhere been supplanted by religions that have become more popular. Basically, it is Islam.

Small communities of Zoroastrians persist in India and Iran, as well as in some countries of Western Europe and the states of the former USSR, mainly in Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. Some features of Zoroastrianism are present in Ecuadorian Quechua.

Among the forest Indians, tribal beliefs are preserved.

Statistical indicators

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Given that the population of Ecuador is 16.3 million people, the annual growth of one and a half percent looks substantial, so this is one of the fastest growing countries in South America.

The birth rate is more than 20 people per one thousand of the population, and the death rate is only five people per thousand. The level of emigration in quantitative terms is quite low 0.8 persons per thousand inhabitants.

A feature of the population of Ecuador is the high life expectancy. For men it is 72.4 years, and for women it is 78.4 years.

In recent years, an important indicator is the level of immunodeficiency infection (HIV), in Ecuador it is 0.3 percent. Ethno-racial composition is as follows:

  • 65 percent of the population are mestizos;
  • 25 percent are Indians;
  • 7 percent are white;
  • 3 percent are negros.

92 percent of men and 90 percent of the population are literate. Catholics in Ecuador, 95 percent, other religions about five percent.

Dynamics

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In Ecuador, the population is growing, in historical perspective this is especially noticeable. In 1500, about two million people lived in the country, then the fall began: up to one million inhabitants in 1600, up to 350 thousand in 1750th.

Then growth began again. By 1900, one million 400 thousand people already lived in Ecuador. In 1930, almost two million inhabitants began to live again.

Ecuador overcame the mark of three million in 1950, in 1990 the population of the country was already more than ten million inhabitants. According to promising forecasts, by 1930 almost 19 million people will live in the country, by 2050 - more than 23 million, and then a recession is planned. By 2100, according to researchers, the population will drop to 15, 600, 000 people.

Life benefits

The standard of living of the population of Ecuador depends on a large number of advantages that exist in this country. It is a diverse and pure nature. There are four climatic zones in the country - these are the mountains, the coast of the Pacific Ocean, the jungle and the Galapagos Islands. The weather is good all year round, the relations with foreigners are very friendly.

Many life in Ecuador attracts a diverse and all kinds of fauna and flora. There are many national parks with unique animals and plants. There is high security: there are no terrorist acts in the country, the government carefully monitors environmental safety, there are no hazardous industrial production in Ecuador. At the same time, it is easy to start your own business here, to start running your small business, for example, in the sphere of tourism or trade.

Almost all year round in Ecuador, you can find a variety of tasty vegetables and fruits, life expectancy is higher than in Russia, there is little smoking in the country, there are dedicated lanes for public transport, therefore there are practically no traffic jams even in large cities.

In Ecuador, there are many fee-paying schools with a high level of education. Monetary unit - the American dollar. The minimum wage is $ 425 (26, 800 rubles), a high level of insurance medicine.

Most of the residents lead a measured life, there are practically no flies and mosquitoes in the mountains, the work of state and municipal servants is highly appreciated, the communication of officials with visitors is polite and courteous, this is noted by many foreign visitors, especially from Russia. The country has excellent roads.

Tourists in Ecuador are attracted to the ocean, unique miniature hummingbird birds, sympathetic and good-natured people, who are the absolute majority. There are no problems with mobile communications in the country, now they are launching a 4.5G network, in large and medium-sized cities the Internet is supplied via fiber, satellite television is widespread.

The city of Cuenca, which is considered one of the most comfortable and safe in the country, is very popular with American tourists and pensioners, so a large number of elderly people come here every year to spend a vacation or live a couple of months in an attractive climate. In Ecuador, diverse cuisine, which absorbed the features of several nationalities, but, above all, Spanish. Here you can often find fresh seafood and seafood delicacies on the table.

Many people like the colonial architecture, which in the cities is preserved almost in its original form.

Existing deficiencies

According to reviews of those who constantly live or are in Ecuador, there are plenty of minuses in this state. They are associated, for example, with natural features and local mentality.

First of all, many are scared away by a large number of volcanoes and scorpions, often earthquakes occur here, so the population of many cities and small villages live practically on a powder keg.

In the cities there are a lot of stray dogs, and therefore their waste products. The government is not coping with their flow, the authorities have no real effective plan on how to solve this problem.

The country has a very weak higher education, even in comparison with other states of South America. Ecuadorian universities, as well as their diplomas, are not particularly appreciated in the world.

For the Russian person, the absolute absence of tea, buckwheat and herring will prove to be an unpleasant surprise. There is no ventilation and heating in the houses, and in the mountains there are very cool nights. Appliances and cars are very expensive, and the purchase of furniture, as well as household appliances, will cost you a lot of money.

The nature is very specific: the sun is so bright that often the locals suffer from skin cancer, it is impossible to sunbathe in principle. In many professions extremely low level of professionalism.

The country has very expensive products, in big cities there are criminogenic dangerous areas in which it is better not to appear at night. High level of pickpocketing in public transport.

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