- The essence of the problem of abandoned villages in the Republic of Tatarstan
- The history of the process of disappearance of villages and villages in the Republic of Tatarstan
- Migration of the rural population as the reason for the disappearance of villages
- Ways to solve the problem
- Enthusiasm or nowhere to go? Small villages of Tatarstan
- Disappeared villages of Agryz region
- Disappeared villages of Almetyevsk region
- Disappeared villages of another region
- Attention of the public and state authorities to the problem of the disappearance of villages
In the abandoned settlements, life once boiled, they had their own unique culture and way of life, their own flavor and their own destiny. With the disappearance of villages for us and future generations, the history of the villages of Tatarstan is lost forever.
The essence of the problem of abandoned villages in the Republic of Tatarstan
In Tatarstan over the past 80 years, more than 1, 300 villages have moved to abandoned status, about 790, 000 people for some reason have left their rural homes. Now about 250 villages are on the verge of extinction (their number is no more than 10 people) from 3, 070 rural settlements. A village in the republic, as in the country as a whole, remains to exist thanks to enthusiasts or those who have nowhere to go.
There were a huge number of reasons for the disappearance of villages: they were flooded or exposed to another natural disaster, industrial or urban construction on its territory, the village was declared unpromising, educational or medical institutions and many others were closed there.
The history of the process of disappearance of villages and villages in the Republic of Tatarstan
A significant reduction in the number of villages and villages in Tatarstan occurred in the 50s and early 60s of the 20th century. Small and unpromising agricultural kolkhoz villages began to be merged into large farms. As a result of this policy, small villages either merged, or were joined to larger ones, or disappeared from the face of the earth.
In the 1960s and 1980s, the number of state farms increased, but the process of disappearance of small villages continued. This is due to the fact that in small rural settlements there was practically no infrastructure, and the consequence was the migration of people to larger and more developed villages.
From 1980 to 2000, there is a slowdown in the reduction of rural settlements. This is due to some improvements in the social and cultural standard of living in rural areas. But the outflow of the population from the village continues anyway.
Migration of the rural population as the reason for the disappearance of villages
During the period from 1970 to 2013, the number of rural residents decreased by 2 times. This is primarily due to the migration of the population from the villages to the cities and more developed socio-cultural settlements. Mass outflow of the population falls on the 50-70s of the 20th century. With the decrease in the number of the rural population, a mechanism was launched to reduce the number of small villages in Tatarstan.
The process of their disappearance is happening now, despite the state investments in the agricultural sector. The villages of the large become thinly populated, then abandoned and eventually disappear altogether from the face of the earth. Thus, in 49 settlements in the 2010 census, not a single person was found. The number of such settlements may increase every year, as there are currently about 250 villages with no more than 10 people, which over time can replenish the lists of abandoned villages of Tatarstan.
Ways to solve the problem
Currently, the Republic of Tatarstan and Russia are characterized by the growth of agglomerations (large cities absorb nearby settlements) and the process of urbanization (resettlement of the population from villages and villages to cities). Villages that are far from large cities are inferior to such agglomerations in the availability of jobs, in infrastructure, in the quality of the services provided. And the outflow of the population from these territories to the cities is a normal natural process.
In order to preserve the remaining villages, a competent state policy is needed, which should consist not only in financing, subsidies and support programs for farmers, but also in an ideological approach: explaining to the population the prospects of living in rural areas, nurturing a sense of owner, developing people’s respect for agricultural work and earth.
Enthusiasm or nowhere to go? Small villages of Tatarstan
People on the ground are trying with all their might to stop the process of the disappearance and desolation of villages. Some of them come to the cemeteries, others build mosques, others improve the springs, trying to preserve the legacy of the times that has reached us.
Residents of small villages find themselves in the confined space of their problems. With the arrangement of roads such settlements are not included in the program for subsidies for construction. It is economically unprofitable to build roads where almost no one lives. Large villages can still raise their own funds and receive additional financial assistance from the state, but small villages, where only 5-6 yards, are unrealistic.
Even if the problem of roads is solved, the next problem of small villages arises - the lack of regular communication to them. Carriers refuse such routes because they are economically disadvantageous.
The closure of schools and medical institutions is also due to the failure of the cost of their maintenance.
With the closure of social and cultural facilities, in the absence of roads and regular connections, lack of water supply, gasification, and sometimes electricity, the village gradually begins to die.
Disappeared villages of Agryz region
Let us turn to specific examples. The abandoned villages of Tatarstan in this region include: Egorovo, Sochnevo, Pirogovo, Mikhailovsk, Mushaksky cordon, Prokoshevo. Only the village graveyards live, which are occasionally visited by relatives.
Village Prokoshevo, Agryz district
Currently the settlement does not exist. From 1859 to 1873, there were 8 houses on the territory of the village, 57 people lived, of which 23 men and 34 women. In 1891, 15 families and 105 inhabitants lived. The territory of the village was located between the Sarapulsko-Elabuzhsky tract and a country road running along the right bank of the Kama River. According to some reports, the kind of activity of the villagers was a cart. Reliable information about the village after 1891 has not been preserved. She moved to abandoned status, apparently due to the resettlement of residents in more developed localities.
Disappeared villages of Almetyevsk region
In the area, the status of abandoned villages includes: Olimpiadovka, Curley, Aleksandrovka, Ostalkino, Gilmanovka, Kublitskaya, Samarkand, Kommuna, Mochilovka, Sokolka, Yusupkino, Nariman, Novaya Ilten, Tuktar.
Village Olympiadovka Almetyevsky district
It was located in the valley of the river Bagryazh. It was founded around 1830 by Lieutenant Ryumin, he also owned another settlement, Bagryazh-Nikolsky, from which the population of Olympiad was formed. The settlement is named in honor of the wife of the Olympiad Alexandrovna. Favorable natural conditions, scenic countryside, good location make the village quite large for those times.
The population of the Olympics in 1858 was 590 people, in 1897 - 705, and in 1912 - 836 people, in 1930 - 818 people.
The village was quite developed, in 1900 the Zemstvo School was opened, in which all the children of the village studied.
The settlement existed for 156 years and collapsed in 1986, when residents left their homes, moving to the city or to the village Kitelgu.
Disappeared villages of another region
For our and subsequent generations, the villages of Sabolekovo, Ilyinka, Nikoshnovka, Kuakly have disappeared forever in the Nizhnekamsk region.
Village Sobolekovo Nizhnekamsk area
It was founded in the 17th century by peasants from nearby villages. The successful geographical location of the village turns it into a large village with its church, built in 1871 and consecrated in the name of Elijah the Prophet. The village later became part of the village of Nizhnekamsk, which in 1966 received city status. In the 30s, the church was closed, a club with a library was created in the building, and then the building was barbarously used as a slaughterhouse. Currently, the village is part of the city of Nizhnekamsk, and the Orthodox Church is half-destroyed and abandoned.
Attention of the public and state authorities to the problem of the disappearance of villages
The tragic fate of more than 1, 300 villages of Tatarstan that have disappeared or been abandoned requires more careful attention from government bodies and the public. A start was made in December 2013, when the website “Disappeared villages and villages of the Republic of Tatarstan” appeared on the Internet, where information about 500 localities was collected. Updating and updating information continues now.
Difficult to find such villages lack of specialized topographic maps. On modern, abandoned villages are usually denoted as “non-residential” or as a stow. To search for the abandoned villages of Tatarstan and to replenish the database on the website, an initiative on the part of local authorities and the population and their assistance in this difficult work is necessary.
A balanced social and cultural-educational policy of the state in the countryside and wide public attention may help preserve the remaining rural settlements.