- What is it - the largest collection of dolls of the peoples of the world?
- How and when did the first toys of this kind appear
- Puppet theater on the streets
- Features of Japanese toys
- Culture of the Eskimos and Nenets. Doll of the North
- Slavic copies
- African dolls
- Russian doll
- Beauty of the last century: Barbie doll
- Modern Tilde Dolls
Probably, it is now quite difficult to meet a person who is not attracted to the dolls of the peoples of the world. Why? In fact, there are several reasons for this.
Of course, first of all I would like to emphasize the unusualness and originality of this type of toy. But in cultural terms, its role is generally difficult to overestimate. You must agree that the collection of dolls of the peoples of the world can best acquaint schoolchildren, and even adults, with the customs, traditions and beliefs of representatives of completely different corners of our planet. Maybe this is the secret of popularity? Let's try to figure it out together.
What is it - the largest collection of dolls of the peoples of the world?
Dolls in one way or another are present in the life of each person. True, it happens more often in childhood, and especially in girls. One way or another, one cannot meet now the one who cannot give a more or less intelligible definition of this concept.
Some adults also do not part with them, because for us, you see, the doll can perform several functions at once. For example, to act as a part of childhood, a talisman, additions to the interior or even an amazing specimen of a carefully collected collection.
To date, the real hunters for such toys have become collectors. They are interested in rare dolls in costumes of the peoples of the world, they track the release of new models, meticulously caring for their already found samples.
It's no secret that a true collector allows himself to spend impressive money on the acquisition of more and more new things. There are such collections of dolls, which may well be considered a real historical and cultural value.
The most famous collectors in Moscow are E. Losev and N. Bartram. Their rare dolls in the costumes of the peoples of the world became the basis for the creation of the Moscow Museum of Toys. Also very famous is the Vakhtanov collection, which consists of modern artistic specimens.
In addition, many collectors gained fame thanks to Barbie, who became mega-popular in the 1990s. The largest collection of such sophisticated girls with gorgeous hair belongs to Leonid Celluloid Boy.
It should be noted that the Barbie collection in Germany, owned by B. Dorfman, currently has 6025 models, 4000 collected by I. Riebel in the Netherlands, but in the UK the largest collection belongs to T. Matia.
In addition to modern specimens, collectors collect and other species. For example, the owner and author of the largest collection of valuable porcelain dolls, remarkably similar to famous people, is the artist O. Powell. T. Finnanger from Norway is famous for creating tildes. And scary monster dolls uglies brought worldwide popularity to their designers D. Croat and S. Kim.
How and when did the first toys of this kind appear
Dolls of different nations have a very long and rich history. As you know, even the ancient people gave their children to play, however, not dolls in the modern sense of the word, but different stones and pieces of wood. But the children of the Persians and Indian tribes already had the most real fairies, sorceresses and sorceresses made of wood or fabric with traced eyes.
In addition, we should not forget that in ancient times, some dolls of the peoples of the world, whose photos can now be found in almost every encyclopedia, were an integral part of religious rituals, and it was strictly forbidden for children to play with them.
The first children's dolls were found in Egypt. Their age is about 4, 500 years. They were decorated with beads, had real hair and moving arms and legs.
In ancient Greece and Rome, a toy in the form of a Trojan horse with figures of soldiers inside was very popular among boys. Products created from clay and wax and brightly painted.
In antiquity, these figures have already begun to be made of expensive materials, and among them the most expensive was considered the one that was made of ivory.
Dolls of the peoples of Russia are most often identified with toys made of rags or straw.
Puppet theater on the streets
This unusual kind of representations originates from the pagan rituals used to worship the gods. Initially, he was present in the form of short farcical miniatures with nasty utterances in the direction of higher persons in ancient Egypt in the XVI century. BC e., and in ancient Rome - in the II. BC e.
A little later, starting around the XI century. n Oe., in Europe, in Catholic churches, parishioners with special zeal began to arrange evangelical performances with the main character in the form of the Virgin Mary. However, it should be noted that these scenes caused great disapproval of local authorities and were under strict prohibition.
At the end of the XVI century. in the squares and fairs, an image of a stupid, obscene, but bold, ingenuous, clever and sharp-witted glutton and a bumpkin named Pulcinella, from which the era of European dolls began, was created.
In England, by the way, such a hero was a rogue and a fighter Patch, always quarreling with his wife. In France, the favorite character was a hunchback and a badass Polichinel, who could not at all keep secrets. In Germany - the vulgar simplet Kasperl with rude jokes. In the Czech Republic, the good-natured joker and joker Kashparek, known for his strong words, was considered the favorite hero.
Note that such characters were present in almost all nations. For example, Denmark is often associated with Mester Yakel, the Netherlands - with Jan Klaassen, Greece - with Fazulis, etc.
But in Russia, a fool and a fighter Petrushka have acquired special popularity and love.
Features of Japanese toys
Dolls of the peoples of the world cannot even be imagined without the Japanese Kokshi.
Initially, she had no limbs and looked very much like a Russian nesting doll. Such pupae were made of cherry, dogwood, and maple, and then, manually, painted with floral and plant motifs.
At first, Kokeshi was used by shamans to perform ritual rituals and commemorations. However, over time, they began to be given to children and made of wood, patches and paper.
In the XX century. There were so-called large-sized interior dolls, resembling a geisha, with hand-embroidered kimono. They were generously decorated with gold thread and precious stones.
Culture of the Eskimos and Nenets. Doll of the North
The Nenets and Eskimos used various statuettes to communicate with otherworldly forces for a very long time. These toys were without eyes, ears, mouth and nose.
It was believed that the dolls of the peoples of the world of this type had a special energy, and, having a painted face, could come to life and frighten young children. Families of northern peoples had a large number of dolls, and the dowry of young girls necessarily numbered more than a dozen of such products.
To preserve the culture later they made the face and clothes in the form of a national costume.
The Slavs dolls were made literally from everything. If necessary, straw, clay, ash, patches and tree bark were used … People considered these figures as wards.
For example, the Slavs believed that a toy made of flax would drive away all illnesses from a child, and the “ten-handle” would bring happiness and well-being to the family, wealth would come with a “Krupenichka” filled with grain. By the way, different grains had their meaning: rice - a holiday, buckwheat - wealth, barley - satiety, oats - power.
Popular were also the "hair cutters" made from a bunch of clipped grass, and the older girls liked to play with patchwork dolls.
In Africa, dolls in costumes of the peoples of the world, in this case the African continent, have been handed down from generation to generation. They were manually created from grass or carved from wood. Then the products were decorated with colorful outfits, beads and bracelets.
Mostly African dolls were dressed in traditional outfits and portrayed adult married women. But the shamans for their rites separately made special ritual figurines.
Matryoshka is considered the Russian national painted doll of our country. Not everyone knows that it originates in China, but in Russia they began to be made after the end of the XIX century. A. Mamontov brought a figure of a Japanese old man to Moscow, which was revealed.
In the middle of the first was the same statuette, only smaller, and behind it more and more. Figures opened until then, until at the bottom of the latter was found the tiniest.
Russian masters created and painted a toy, consisting of eight figures. All of them depicted a woman, and on the smallest they painted a baby. They called the toy Matryoshka in honor of the most popular then in Moscow name - Matryon.
Beauty of the last century: Barbie doll
A doll named Barbie - this is perhaps the object of desire of all girls, without exception, and the most famous doll in the world. It is unlikely that anyone will deny the fact that this attractive fashionista has truly become the standard of female beauty.
Created this masterpiece by Ruth Handler. And it was like that. In the 40s of the twentieth century. yet an unknown woman, together with her husband, opened a company specializing in the manufacture of picture frames. In the course of production there was a lot of wooden waste, of which Ruth thought up to make small wooden furniture for dolls.
After a trip to Switzerland in 1956, in which Ruth saw Lilith's doll, a blonde with defiant forms and fashionable wardrobe, she decided to create an image herself that would make the dream of an adult life for girls. Ruth made Lilith of the vulgar, the copyright for which she, by the way, bought, a positive and well-loved beauty. The doll got its name in honor of the inventor's daughter Barbara. The first Barbie outfits were sewn from Dior and Givenchy. In 1958, Barbie was patented. By the way, Ken came up and was named in honor of the inventor's son - Kenneth.
Now Barbie doll is among the top ten best-selling goods in the world.
Modern Tilde Dolls
Such a lovely toy was invented by the Norwegian artist T. Finnanger. A tilde is an object made of cloth in the form of a doll, animal, or some object. The first tilde artist created in 1999, when she was 25 years old.
Now sold branded materials and accessories for comfort with the same name, and their creator gives advice on the device of the female world around her creation.
This type of toy has several features: they are always plump, with soft and smooth silhouettes, faces and tild faces are very conditional, and all of them are similar to each other in a recognizable color gamut with rich and calm shades. Tilda dolls in the costumes of the peoples of the world have recently become more and more common.