Russian armored personnel carriers: history of development, technical characteristics and new technologies

Anonim

To transport the soldiers and the command of the motorized rifle, infantry, motorized infantry and airborne units, as well as all the necessary materiel, to perform combat missions, special armored vehicles are needed. In the army, such vehicles are known as armored personnel carriers. Mostly they are called abbreviated BTR. Judging by the reviews, many are interested in how many armored personnel carriers are in Russia and which ones? To create armored personnel carriers began in Soviet times. Compared with modern Russian armored personnel carriers, their characteristics are much worse. Nevertheless, some armored personnel carriers are used in the Russian army to this day. You will learn about the history of creation and technical characteristics of the BTR of the USSR and Russia from this article.

Object 141

According to military experts, by the end of the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet army had the most sophisticated heavy and medium tanks in the world. To support armored units required infantrymen. And for their delivery to the battlefield needed armored light vehicles with high maneuverability. Already in the post-war period, namely in 1947, in the experimental design bureau of the Gorky Automobile Plant they began to design a light wheeled armored personnel carrier “Object No. 141”. At the same time, in Moscow, engineers at the Design Bureau, headed by A. Kravtsov. created tracked armored personnel carriers. The work took two years. For the manufacture of the chassis Soviet designers used the tank chassis T-70. Two-stroke four-cylinder engine with liquid cooling and 140 hp taken from YAZ-204B. From this machine was borrowed and transmission. With fuel tanks designed for 220 liters, the power reserve indicator was 170 km. In the management department there was a combat crew, which was represented by a driver-mechanic and a gunner-radio operator.

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The latter fired from a 7.62-mm machine gun SG-43. The ammunition had 1 thousand rounds of ammunition in four ribbons and f-1 grenades (12 pcs.). Also at his disposal was a radio station 10 RT-12. In the troop compartment were 16 fighters. The armored personnel carrier had a steel hull made of stitched 13-mm armor plates. The thickness of the sheet in the bottom was 3 mm. The BTR could also be used to transport goods weighing up to 2 tons. After successfully passed the tests in April 1949, the armored personnel carrier adopted the USSR Army as the BTR-40.

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Produced by employees of the GAZ plant. Molotov. Mass production lasted until 1960 This model was not in service with Russia. The BTR served as the basis for several subsequent modifications. A total of 8500 pieces of equipment were collected.

About modifications

On the basis of the armored personnel carrier we designed the following modifications:

  • BTR-40A. Unlike its counterpart, this armored personnel carrier was completed with two twin 14.5-mm large-caliber machine guns of Vladimirov. 1, 200 cartridges were contained in 24 tapes. The combat crew is supplemented by two loaders. Entered service in 1951
  • BTR-40B. The model was created in 1956. Unlike the previous versions, in this BTR, special tubes were brought to the wheels through which air was pumped. The armored personnel carrier had a ventilation system, due to which the crew was not affected by chemical and bacteriological weapons.
  • BTR-40B. This is an open-top armored personnel carrier. In case of defeat of the car, his crew could quickly evacuate. However, he was not protected from attacks from above. The technique was used in 1956 to suppress the insurgency in Hungary.

In the future, Soviet gunsmiths continued to work on the creation of armored personnel carriers. Many are interested in what kind of armored personnel carriers and infantry fighting vehicles in Russia are. More on this later.

BTR-80

According to experts, the Russian army has 1, 500 armored personnel carriers of this model. Serially, the BTR-80 has been produced since 1984. The administrative crew consists of 3 people, the fighting crew - from 7. These armored personnel carriers of Russia are moving at a speed of 80 km / h. Power reserve - 600 km. Technique with steel rolled armor. It is supplied with a large-caliber machine gun of Vladimirov of 14.5 mm caliber and 7.62-mm PCT paired with it. The engine was built into the car from KamAZ 7403 with 260 hp power. These armored personnel carriers in Russia since 1991 are the main ones. The latest modifications are characterized by reinforced weapons, in connection with which military experts rank these vehicles as infantry fighting vehicles. Russian designers based on the Soviet-made BTR-80 created the following options:

  • BTR-80A. In the Russian army BTR since 1994. The turret with the layout of the layout. The machine gun of Vladimirova is replaced by a 30-mm automatic 2A72 gun.
  • BTR-80S. This model is designed for the National Guard. Shoots a 14.5 mm KPVT machine gun.
  • BTR-80M. Unlike previous models, it has an increased body length and bullet resistance. The engine from YMZ-238 with a power of 240 horsepower was installed on the armored personnel carrier.

Armored personnel carrier №82

These armored personnel carriers of Russia in service with the country consist of 2013. According to experts, the base for their creation was the Soviet BTR-80. Design work on modernization was carried out since 2009 by employees of the Arzamas Machine-Building Plant (AMZ).

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In 2010, state tests took place. The car was supplied with an 8-cylinder 4-stroke V-shaped diesel engine from KamAZ-740. Power unit power - 300 hp In the armored personnel carrier can be used 14.5-mm machine gun KPVT or rapid-fire gun 2A72 caliber 30 mm. The second option is mainly used in one of the modifications, namely in the BTR-82A.

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The main tool - 7, 62 mm paired with PKTM. In addition to the BTR-82A, several other modifications were made:

  • BTR-82A1 or BTR-88. The armored personnel carrier has a remotely controlled combat module developed at the Petrel Research Institute. The target is striking with a 30mm automatic cannon and a 7.62 mm machine gun.
  • BTR-87. Machine with a completely new armored hull. The equipment is made for export.

BTR-90 "Sprout"

This model is a wheeled floating armored vehicle. Designed vehicles at the Gorky Automobile Plant. Assemble an armored personnel carrier at the Arzamas machine-building plant. The general public this BTR could see in 1994

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State tests were completed in 2004. The Rostock is completed with an automatic 30-mm 2A42 cannon, from which 500 shots can be fired. There is also an automatic grenade launcher AGS-17 (the ammunition load includes 400 cartridges), a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun (2, 000 rounds of ammunition) and the Konkurs-M anti-tank missile system. From the latter, the crew can launch 4 anti-tank guided missiles. BTR works well at night due to the presence of the combined sight: night BPKZ-42 and day 1P-13. Russian designers created two modifications:

  • BTR-90 "Berehok". In contrast to the analogue, in this version, the AGS-17 and Konkurs-M were replaced with an automatic grenade launcher AGS-30 and the anti-tank complex Kornet with a thermal imager and fire control system. For this armored vehicles provided combat compartment "Berezhok."
  • BTR-90M. The armored personnel carrier with the fighting compartment "Bakhcha-U", which is equipped with a 100-mm 2A70 cannon, a 30-mm 2A72 gun, a 7.62-mm PKTM machine gun and an Arkan 9M117M1 anti-tank complex. Instead, it can also stand "Agona" 9K117.

According to military experts, armored personnel carriers are prototypes. The batch is limited to 14 cars.

BMP-1

It is a Soviet tracked infantry fighting vehicle. Developed by engineers of the main special design bureau No. 2 (GKSB-2) in the city of Chelyabinsk at the tractor plant them. Lenin. In service since 1966. Serial production lasted until 1983. The crew consists of 3 and 8 people. BMP with anti-bullet reservation, equipped with 73-mm smooth-bore cannon 2A28, PKT machine gun of 7.62 mm caliber and the “Malyutka” 9M14M launcher. 40 guns can be fired from a gun, 2 thousand from a machine gun, and 4 from a launcher. With a multi-fuel 6-cylinder V-shaped diesel engine with liquid cooling, the BMP on a highway achieves a speed of up to 65 km / h.

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On the basis of the BMP-1, several modifications have been created that are listed in Russia's arsenal:

  • BP-1M. Produced by the Russian machine-building company Muromteplovoz. The infantry combat vehicle is armed with a 30 mm caliber 2A42 cannon, PKTM and Konkurs anti-tank guided missile.
  • BMP-1AM "Basurmanin". Appliances 2018 release. The designers equipped it with remotely controlled combat models used in the BTR-82A.
  • BMP-1P. The machine has a powerful launcher "Fagot" 9K111.
  • BMP-1PG. An additional automatic grenade launcher "Flame" AGS-17.

The total number of all modifications in service with Russia is about 500 units.

BMP-2

The tracked infantry fighting vehicle was created as Object 675. It differs from the BMP-1 in that it has a larger turret and another weapon system. In the management department are the commander and gunner-operator. Shooting is conducted from a 30-millimeter cannon 2A42, which is made at a machine-building plant in Tula. There is also one PCT of 7.62 mm caliber and 9K113 or 9K111 ATGM. Transports BMP to 7 fighters. Equipment with steel rolled homogeneous (anti-bullet and anti-dump) armor. Power unit 300 hp It has a speed of 65 km / h. The ammunition of a rifled small-caliber automatic gun consists of armor-piercing and high-explosive fragmentation projectiles (500 pcs.). The Russian designers based on the BMP-2 designed the following more advanced options:

  • BPM-2 "Flame". Shooting is conducted from an automatic grenade launcher AG-17 "Flame", in which ammunition 250 charges.
  • BMP-2K. The machine comes with an additional shortwave radio station.
  • BMP-2D. Technique with enhanced armor. In this regard, she was not adapted to overcome water obstacles.
  • BMP-2 "Bakhcha-U". Model 2000 release. The machine will drop up to 5 soldiers. For it, a combat module "Bakhcha-U", developed by Russian designers, is provided. Used as a combat reconnaissance vehicle (BMR).
  • BMP-2M. It differs from the previous analogue by the presence of the “Berezhok” combat module, an additional panoramic sight and a modified location of the AGS-17. Shooting is conducted from four launchers ATGM "Cornet."

The armed forces of Russia is 3 thousand of these machines.

BMP-3

Indicated as a 688M Object. Created by engineers Kurgan Special Design Bureau of Mechanical Engineering. Produced at OJSC "Kurganmashzavod". In service since 1987. In the management department there are three people, the landing force has two places. Thus, the BMP-3 transports 9 fighters. The crew is protected by aluminum rolled spaced armor with steel screens. Machine speed increased to 70 km / h. Based on the infantry fighting vehicle, the following modifications were developed:

  • BMP-3K. The commander machine has navigation equipment, two radio stations, a receiver and an autonomous generator. Purpose - to communicate with various units and military units.
  • BMP-3F. It is a marines combat vehicle. It has high buoyancy.

"Boomerang". About the history of creation

Despite the fact that today armored personnel carrier No. 82 is used as the main one in Russia (the photo of the armored personnel carrier is presented in the article), according to experts, it is already quite outdated. In this regard, the Ground Forces of the Russian Federation need a modern armored personnel carrier. It should be a completely new car, and not just another modernization of the Soviet armored personnel carrier. The new BTR of Russia "Boomerang" the public saw in 2018 at the Victory Parade. Russian developers are planning to use this model as a unified platform, which will later become the basis for the creation of new models of armored vehicles.

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BTR of Russia "Boomerang" in the technical documentation was originally listed as "sleeve". In the course of the design work, the designers took advantage of the BTR-90 Rostok designs. Both cars were rejected by the Russian military. Due to the fact that they wanted to equip the middle part in the hull of the “Sleeve” with a power plant, a weapon module and a dynamic protection system, as in the armored carrier No. 82, it became very closely in the new armored vehicle. In addition, further modernization was excluded. Therefore, these innovations had to be abandoned. Soon all the developments on these projects were introduced into the new BTR of Russia “Boomerang”.

Description

The main drawback of the BTR-80 was the weak level of protection, especially from land mines and mines. Therefore, the fighters had to ride not in the cabin, but on the roof. It was to create a more protected armored personnel carrier and began to design a new Russian armored personnel carrier. It was not possible to improve the technique of Soviet manufacturing, since it is already with a fully exhausted modernization resource.

In "Boomerang" the case has a new form, layout and armor, for the manufacture of which modern materials are used. Because of the reinforced armor, the equipment weighs 20 tons. The designers assume that further modifications will have a mass of at least 25 tons. The nose section of the machine became the place for the power compartment. Feed is the most protected part of the BTR. Machine with multi-layered armor, which includes ceramics. Unlike hemogenic, this type of armor is better. Mostly it is used in tanks.

Judging by the reviews of experts, "Boomerang" can withstand a hit of cumulative ammunition. An armored personnel carrier will not be able to penetrate an anti-tank grenade, small-caliber artillery and a heavy machine-gun. This sample uses an 8x8 wheel formula. The back of the hull is equipped with jet engines, thanks to which the BTR will overcome water obstacles. Shooting will be conducted from a 30-millimeter 2A42 automatic cannon, a PKT machine gun and a Kornet anti-tank missile corps. This weapon is concentrated in a single combat module with remote control. In the ammunition of the main gun to 500 ammunition. Shooting can be done as a commander, and the operator-gunner.

Future plans

The base of the armored personnel carrier "Boomerang" Russian designers are going to use when creating a mobile anti-tank complex, infantry fighting vehicle, wheeled tank and other types of special means of transport. Each of them will have their own weapons.

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