Moscow trolley buses: history of routes

Anonim

Today, it seems to many that Moscow trolleybuses have always been. They appeared on the metropolitan highways in 1933. In the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Moscow became the first city along which unusual cars with high “horns” (terminal horns) connected to wires ran. The routes were different.

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Out of contact

Years passed, and the roadless mechanical transport “luxury” of an electrically operated contact type has become a habitual means of transportation. A trolley bus has long been seen not only in the Gold-domed, but also in other cities of Russia, the republics of the former USSR. However, the routes of the Moscow trolleybus (104 of them) have perhaps the richest history. In a small article to retell it is difficult.

But what awaits the Moscow trolleybus ahead (the history of the routes will be outlined below)? It is said that by 2020, due to the rapid optimization of the network, this type of transport will order a long life. Back in 2015, bloggers wrote about the possible cancellation or shortening of 25 routes, the partial dismantling of contact lines. The total length of trolleybus "threads" in Moscow is 600 km.

Leading online diaries reflect on the fate of trolley buses number 4, 7, 33, 49, 52, 84, serving the South-West District of Moscow. The most decisive representatives of the virtual fraternity were alarmed in earnest: in their opinion, the industry is dying.

There was some kind of vicious circle. MUP Mosgortrans explains that there is a shortage of trolley buses for all kilometers. In the meantime, the state-owned unitary enterprise has virtually ceased to update the rolling stock (despite the fact that the transport development program in Moscow, according to which the “hard workers of Moscow streets” are on the rise, has not been canceled). Will Moscow trolleybuses (see photo in the article) disappear soon?

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To the delight of citizens

Whether the "stag beetles" will be eliminated, more and more actively being squeezed out by buses, or these are mere fabrications, we will not guess. But the inhabitants of Maroseyka, Pokrovka, Bolshaya Ordynka, Pyatnitskaya are already “not in contact”. Dismantling of lines took place. At the same time, the “Mosgortrans” management doesn’t see anything terrible in it, asserting that the trolleybus still occupies its stable niche, the enterprise will steadily develop.

Indeed, in the metropolitan reconstruction program “My Street” there is an item about the dismantling of part of the lines. However, the replacement of trolley buses with buses, according to experts, is only a temporary phenomenon. Well, let's talk about how Moscow trolley buses, the history of which contains a lot of interesting things, began to plow the expanses of the capital.

1933 The first line, marginal

How did Moscow trolleybuses go in the 1930s (routes have changed more than once since then)? Trolleybus number one went a long way on the fifteenth of November 1933 (the launch was planned to be done much earlier, in 1924, but failed). The line (it was mounted in October 1933) crossed the Leningrad highway, continued from the Tverskaya outpost to the Pokrovsky Streshnyov.

Road transport with pantographs (horn-terminals), as planned, involved on suburban areas (in the center of Moscow, the first violin was the tram). There was a double-track line to the Dynamo sports arena, while the rest of the way was managed with a single track. Moscow trolley buses should have conquered this world. And they did it.

True, on the day of launch two newcomers were supposed to go on the route, but only one appeared. The second giant immediately after receiving from the factory was expecting a “work injury”: he fell under the weak floor of the new garage and suffered. But everything returned to normal. The schedule was as follows: from 7.00 to 24.00.

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1934 Continuation

Moscow trolleybuses became more and more popular. At the dawn of 1934, the line-ancestor already stretched from the New Triumphal Gate (Tverskaya Gate) directly to the center, to the square, which until 1918 was called Voskresenskaya (now - Revolution). 34 year ended with the opening of line II. She went from the Arbat Gate square to Smolensk (Arbat) and right up to the Dorogomilovskaya outpost.

The route of the trolley bus number 2 was put into operation at the end of the year (December 10, 1934). The movement started from the Dragomilovskaya outpost. Having gone to Revolution Square along Bolshaya Dragomilovskaya Square, the “horned” transport went to Arbat. From there - to the Comintern, to the final under the name "Okhotny Ryad". By that time, there were thirty-six cars on both existing trolleybus lines.

1935 Third turn

The third trolleybus "web" was "woven" by people in the autumn of 1935. She stretched across the center of the city. Thanks to her, it was possible to visit Petrovka, in the Karetny Row, on Sukharevskaya Square, from there along Mira Avenue (then 1st Meshchanskaya Street) to wave to Rzhevsky (the station has long been known to all as Riga). It would seem that quite recently only one trolley bus was running, and by the end of the year 35, 57 LK-cars were serving the Muscovites!

"Lazar Kaganovich" - we mentioned this first Moscow trolleybus, routes. The list of routes, their detailed characteristics would take more than one page of the story.

1936 the trolleybus met with an active “attack” on its rail competitor - the tram. Rails removed from the northern part of the Garden Ring. Instead of the “thugger, ” they launched a smooth “Bugka” (route “B” - from Kudrinskaya Square to Kursky Railway Station).

In the 37th trolleybus, the routes starting from the Garden Ring and continuing along Kalyayevskaya and Novoslobodskaya streets, Kuznetsky Bridge were already actively “settling in” … Muscovites approved the high-field cars of the YATB-1 brand. Especially they liked the leader of the Soviet state, Nikita Khrushchev.

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Two floors, but not the house!

In 1938, a fast and convenient trolley bus became a good friend for everyone who wanted to visit the former patriarchal fishing village, Berezhkovskaya Embankment, with a good omen of Sparrow Hills, rushed to the October (former Kaluzhskaya) Square … station, in Izmailovo, from the Crimean Square along the Garden Ring and Mytnaya Street - to Danilovsky Market.

Moscow trolleybuses covered ten routes. Ways were laid on the ground dismantled tram tracks. Already in 1937-1939. 2-storey handsome YATB-3 and a trolleybus of an English company walked along Leningradsky Prospekt. To put the “lanky wonder” into play, the network had to be lifted by one meter (from 4.8 to 5.8 m). In the 39th, trolleybuses went around the World (Avenue) to the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition (agricultural exhibition). In 1953, due to the inconvenience of use, they got rid of the whopper.

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The heyday and evening of the trolleybus era

Before the beginning of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945 in Moscow there were 583 trolley buses and 11 routes. On January 1, 1952, the capital could boast of 786 trolley buses and a noticeably increased number of directions in which they were moving.

In the 1950s, residential areas were actively growing on the outskirts of the capital. Trolleybus routes were laid there (in particular, to Silver Forest). No matter where Muscovites or guests of the capital went to Izmailovo, Volkhonka, Warsaw highway, Luzhniki stadium and even in a huge number of places, they were approached by a smart trolley.

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Time flies. More than 60 years have passed since in 1954 a new circular line was opened at the VSHV. By the end of 1960, the total length of trolleybus routes reached 540 kilometers, combined by 36 routes.

In 1964-68 in the southwestern residential area, an “accordion” -an articulated trolleybus - was shuttled. However, in 1975, it was finally removed from passenger traffic. In 1964 in Moscow there are 1811 trolley buses. By 1972, the network had reached 1253 km and was recognized as the longest (longest) on the globe.

In the 1970-1980s, new buildings were girded with routes (Novogireevo, Ivanovo, Orekhovo-Borisovo, etc.). In August 1993, one-way traffic was introduced in Moscow (the roads were unloaded and their safety increased). Part of the lines closed. Subsequently, the cuts continued.

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