- Russian Asia
- Geographical features
- North Asia = Siberia
- Unique feature
- North Asia Population
Asia - the largest continent of the planet Earth. This is a territory of contrasts. Here is the highest point above sea level - Mount Everest, and the lowest - the Dead Sea. It is in Asia that the longest river flows - the Yangtze. Here is the unique Caspian Sea. In fact, this is a huge lake. In addition, Asia is the most densely populated part of the planet, containing 53 countries with many ethnic groups, languages and cultures.
Geographically, it is customary to divide Asia into Eastern, Southern, Central and Northern. Where does Europe, Asia North end, begin?
It is with Siberia that the northern part of the Asian continent is associated. It is bounded in the west by the Ural mountain ranges, in the east by the Kolyma River, in the south by the high hills of the Kazakh steppes and by the Arctic Ocean in the north. So, Northern Asia is the mountain ranges of southern Siberia, the Arctic island territory, middle Siberia, northeast part of Siberia and the West Siberian plain.
Starting from the West Siberian Plain, the surface of this part of the Asian continent slowly rises towards the east. At the same time, the entire region is tilted to the north, which is why the rivers here carry their waters from the south to the north and, naturally, belong to the basin of the most northern ocean - the Arctic.
The climate in these places is harsh, from west to east its continentality is increasing. It is in Northern Asia that the cold pole of our Northern Hemisphere is located.
The state border of the Russian Federation also passes through a region such as Northern Asia. The countries that border Russia here are Kazakhstan (the former republic of the USSR), China and Mongolia.
North Asia = Siberia
Modern Siberia is, within the framework described above, the territory of Russia, while historically the Siberian region extends further to the north-east of Kazakhstan and the Russian Far East.
Geographically, North Asia (without the Far East) is divided into:
- Eastern: Republics of Yakutia, Buryatia, Tyva, Khakassia; Oblasts - Amur and Irkutsk; edges - Zabaykalsky and Krasnoyarsky;
- Western: Altai Republic, Altai Territory; regions - Kemerovo, Omsk, Tomsk, Novosibirsk, Kurgan and Tyumen (with the Yamalo-Nenets and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Districts);
- Central Siberia;
- Northeast Siberia.
The structure of Russia Siberia entered the XVI - XVII centuries. Today, its territory, which is considered sparsely populated, is home to just over 19 million people.
The northern part of Asia with such a set of climatic conditions has special natural areas.
This territory is famous for a wide variety of landscape zones: from steppes to arctic deserts. However, the largest part of Siberia is taiga. Nowhere in Russia does it extend as far to the north and does not descend to the hot south, as in this part of North Asia. Mostly the width of the taiga zone exceeds 2 000 km.
Due to the relatively warm summer, taiga vegetation feels great north of the Arctic Circle. Winter, with a low temperature regime, does not allow hardwood trees to grow, because the taiga is slowly creeping towards the south. At this latitude in Western Siberia are the steppes, and in the East - deciduous forests.
The main tree of North Asia is called larch. She sheds her needles during the cold season and endures frost. Closer to Baikal in the forests you can find Siberian pine, popularly called cedar.
The mountain slopes are covered with spruce-fir forests, and dry hollows are rich in steppe vegetation.
North Asia Population
Several indigenous and ethnic groups live in Siberia.
This is a branch of the Mongolian ethnic community, the indigenous people of Buryatia, Trans-Baikal Territory and the Irkutsk Region. Buryats are divided into genera and tribes, as well as on the basis of territorial affiliation.
North Asia is the birthplace of nomadic pastoralists, and the Buryats are no exception. Like most of the Mongol-speaking peoples, the Buryat ethnic group is a supporter of the so-called "black faith" - Tengrism or shamanism.
The largest ethnic group in northern Asia is the Yakuts. This is the indigenous population of Yakutia, their native language is one of the branches of the Turkic group. Traditional occupation - cattle. The Yakuts belong to a unique experiment on breeding in northern latitudes in the conditions of a sharply continental climate of cattle. No less successful were the experiments in fish farming, horse breeding, blacksmithing and military affairs, as well as trade.
From time immemorial, the Yakuts were considered the children of Mother Nature, worshiped the many-talented Aiyy, and worshiped shamanism. By the middle of the XVIII century, North Asia met the first Russian, and began a massive conversion to Christianity, not only Yakuts, but also the Chukchi, Even and other nations.
The third largest nationality of the Siberian region is the Tuvinians. They are indigenous people of Tuva. The native language is Tuvinian, derived from the Sayan group of Turkic languages. Most of the Tuvans are Buddhists, but in some places the root faith is preserved - shamanism.
Or as before - the Tungus. Evenki language belongs to the family of Altai languages, a group of Tungus-Manchu. There are several dialects. The nationality occurred by mixing representatives of the Tungus tribes with the aborigines of Eastern Siberia. Ethnic features of the formation of nationality led to the fact that today there are three groups with different economic and cultural areas: fishermen, cattle breeders and reindeer herders.
The common name of the indigenous Turkic-speaking peoples of Altai. Two groups are distinguished according to ethnographic characteristics: the Altais are northern and southern.