The capital of the Russian Federation, Moscow is the largest city in Europe. As of 2017, 12.3 million people live in this city. And this is without taking into account the huge number of illegal workers from neighboring republics. The administrative division of Moscow is difficult, due to the special status of the city and a large number of people. It acquired its present appearance after the reforms of 1991, when the districts were merged into districts.
Organization of municipal government
Moscow is the political and economic center of the Russian Federation. Therefore, the municipal government in the capital should be thought out to the smallest detail. The administrative division of Moscow includes districts, districts and settlements. The new system was installed in accordance with the reforms of 1991. Before the collapse of the Soviet Union, the administrative division of Moscow included 33 districts. All of them were relatively autonomous units and could independently choose the course of their socio-economic development. However, after the collapse of the USSR, such a system was recognized as ineffective.
The reform of self-government in 1991 was intended to eliminate the problems associated with the accessibility of power and control over the development of territories. As a result, 10 districts were allocated. They included the existing areas, many of which were previously divided into several smaller ones. The prefectures have become the main executive body in the administrative districts, in the districts - the administration. It is believed that the new three-tier management system has improved coordination and bring government bodies closer to local residents. From 1991 to 2017, two more districts were formed. Thus, today there are 12 of them, they include 125 districts. In the course of the project to expand the territory of the capital in 2012, settlements were also allocated. To date, their 21.
It is home to the most Muscovites. The population of the Southern District as of January 1, 2016 is 1, 774 million people. By area, it is only in fifth place. It is bounded by the Bitsevsky Forest, the valleys of the Kotlovka and Moscow rivers and Leninsky Prospect. If we consider the administrative division of Moscow by districts, the South includes 16 districts. On its territory there is a large number of research centers and industrial enterprises. This district is considered the most comfortable in Moscow. There are numerous parks and squares in which residents of the capital love to relax. There are also local nature monuments. Among them are Arshanovsky, Tsaritsyn Park and Zagorje. Also on the territory of the Southern District there are architectural monuments, reserves, Orthodox churches and museums.
If we consider the administrative division of Moscow, then this district is in second place in the population. It is home to 12.16% of Muscovites or 1.555 million people. By area, he is in third place. This district occupies 154.84 square kilometers or 6.13% of the capital. It is limited to the Moscow Ring Road, Losiny Ostrov, Ryazan and Yaroslavl direction railway. This is one of the most environmentally friendly districts. There are many green spaces and parks. The world-famous Cherkizovsky market is located in the Eastern District.
In third place in the population this district. Its share in the total number of residents of the capital is 11.52%. Considering the administrative-territorial division of Moscow, it is impossible not to draw attention to the area occupied by each district. By this indicator, South-West in eighth place. Here are located many industrial enterprises of city value. For example, the plant "Cheryomushki", which is engaged in the production of bakery and confectionery products. Southwestern is also rich in cultural objects.
Consideration of such an issue as the administrative division of Moscow would be incomplete without taking into account the characteristics of the least populated districts. On the penultimate place on this indicator - Novomoskovsk. By area, it is in second place. This district was formed in the course of the project to expand the capital in 2012. It has 11 settlements. The administrative division of the city of Moscow today includes three types of subjects. At the time of transition in the Novomoskovsk and Troitsky districts there is a general prefecture. It is assumed that the center of the first will be the city of Moscow in the future. However, today the general prefecture is located in Troitsk. About a hundred enterprises operate in the district. Among the main attractions of Novomoskovsk are the Izvarino and Milyukovo estates, the Church of St. John the Baptist, and the Orthodox cross in Shcherbinka.
This district is in last place in terms of population. It is home to less than 1% of Muscovites. Like the previous one, it was formed in 2012. In terms of the occupied area, Troitsky comes first. Its share in the total territory of the capital is 42.92%. The main city of the district is Troitsk, which has the status of a science city. Here are 10 research centers. About 5 thousand inhabitants of this city work in the field of science. The high level of education of the local population causes a large number of cultural events held in Troitsk. The priority is the construction of the campus of the Higher Economic School. In the future, an intensive growth of the population of the city and the district as a whole is expected due to the development of the scientific and educational sphere.