- Theoretical base
- Who are we talking about?
- Poverty rates
- Theory and reality: it is important
- We distinguish between concepts
- Society, economy and social strata
- Poverty away!
- Poverty in Russia: this is relevant
- Poverty: a theory of complete and abbreviated
- Statistics: Russia
- Poverty: causes and their classification
- Poverty in Russia: numbers
- Poverty in the world: a large-scale problem
- And how to fight?
- Russia against poverty
- Am I poor?
- Poverty and poverty: is there a difference?
- Summing up
The problem of poverty in modern society is one of the most important among the social. This phenomenon is complex, provoked by various causes and prerequisites. Their role is played by culture, economics, psychology, the mentality of nationality. Often, poverty is directly related to the geographical location of the area, historical peripeteia and other conditions of formation, development of the area, the state. The analysis of poverty is a task solved by economists, sociologists of the whole world, but the final solution has not been found.
Poverty is a condition of a group of people when there is not enough material reserves to keep consumption at an acceptable level. Sociologists talk about poverty, analyzing the incomes of families and individuals. The average level of income is necessary to provide a person with everything necessary, taking into account the realities of our world; technical, technological, cultural level of development.
Poverty in the world is estimated by calculating and comparing the most important indicators. This is the income of the population, its ability to make purchases, the cost of living. This takes into account the peculiarities of the development of a social group through standard indicators. Overall, the system allows to estimate how much inequality is in society, how significant the population’s poverty is.
Who are we talking about?
Based on the terminology introduced in the EU, poor people are those who have insignificant social assets, culture, and material resources. Since these values are small, people are excluded from the minimum normal way of life, peculiar to the state. The number of people living below the poverty line is an indicator that makes it possible to assess the social, economic level of a country's development. It is considered that among other social indicators this one is the most significant.
Practically in any modern country there is a social protection system. One of the most significant areas of work of such an institution is the fight against poverty. However, practice shows that the effectiveness of a social institution in many countries is far from sufficient.
In sociology they talk about several steps. The simplest option is low income. This means that of the basic needs of a certain percentage of the population can not satisfy one or two. When it comes to three or four unmet needs, this is classified as poverty.
Deprivation is a concept that applies to the category of people who do not have the capacity to meet five or more vital needs. If the level of poverty is so high that a group of people cannot afford the vast majority of the list of needs developed by EU experts, this is called deep and hopeless poverty.
Theory and reality: it is important
Of course, sociology has long been concerned with the problem of the lack of wealth in society, but there are still poor people. Many are beginning to doubt whether there is any sense in sociologists in particular, and science in general. Yet a theoretical approach is important for practical problem solving.
Determining the poverty line as precisely as possible is a guarantee that it will be possible to find effective social assistance methods. At the same time, it is necessary to understand that with a large percentage of the poor in the country, the budget incurs huge expenditures on social institutions and assistance, and this reduces the well-being of wealthier citizens.
We distinguish between concepts
Allocate relative poverty and absolute. The first one assumes that the position of a citizen is assessed, being guided by the level of state income on average. Absolute poverty is a term applied to a situation where a certain percentage of the population does not have access to essential needs. These usually include housing, food, clothing.
Poverty is officially estimated by comparing the income of a person with the subsistence minimum established in the state. At the same time, the problem of poverty is considered on the basis of the concept of “relative”. This method makes it possible to estimate not only monetary reserves, but also the level of health care, the infant mortality rate, the average life expectancy and the opportunity to study.
Society, economy and social strata
The problem of poverty is considered from the point of view of sociology and economics. Economic - this is one that involves analyzing the percentage of workers relative to the unemployed, as well as assessing the ability to provide a decent standard of living for yourself and the family of those who work. The less socially protected population groups, the higher the likelihood of social poverty.
Social stratification has a close relationship with the problem of poverty and the presence of social inequality. Inequality implies that resources present in deficit are unevenly distributed among people. Evaluate the distribution of prestige, finance, power, access to education. But we must understand that poverty is characteristic only of a certain part of the population, while inequality applies to all citizens of the country.
Considering the causes of poverty, it can be assumed that social policies can cope with them. At the same time, it is necessary to provide large incomes to wide sections of the population while raising the standard of living. In order to infuse large monetary resources into the social sphere, it is necessary to regularly allocate money from the budget of the country, regions, municipalities. Additionally, finances can be obtained from extra-budgetary funds and special social funds. At the same time, it is necessary to understand that the causes of poverty are not only a lack of budget money, but also in the social system of the country as a whole.
Implementing social policy, it is necessary to pay attention to different sources of funding, as well as reforms. The budget for them is formed both by the state and by businessmen, ordinary residents of the country.
Poverty in Russia: this is relevant
In the Russian Federation, poverty is one of the most important social problems. Of course, a lot of attention is paid to it, it is covered in the media, it is considered by politicians and scientists. And yet the situation is improving very slowly. Poverty in Russia is the classic theme of the scientific work of sociologists and economists.
Analyzing the level of security in the country, it is necessary to pay attention to the concept of “subjective poverty”. It involves a person evaluating his access to basic needs. From this it is possible to define poverty as a concept not only social or economic, but also spiritual.
Poverty: a theory of complete and abbreviated
You can characterize poverty in the broad sense of the word or narrow. The first option assumes the state of the country associated with monetary peripetias, the social sphere and politics. The lower the GDP, the poorer the country is considered. But in the narrow sense of poverty - this is a state of the citizen, when he is not able to meet basic needs.
To cope with poverty, you first need to decide what is the meaning of the term in question. This determines the choice of tools, problem-solving techniques.
Based on information from statistical agencies, in the period 2000-2012 in the Russian Federation, the number of poor decreased by 18.3%, and the minimum estimate was 15 million citizens, that is, about 11% of the population. But then the number of people living below the poverty line began to grow, having already reached a value of 14.5% of the population, that is, about 21 million.
Poverty: causes and their classification
There are situations when the fact of finding him below the poverty line does not depend on a citizen, but there are some when people themselves bring themselves to such a position. Economists identify several main causes of poverty in the country, grouping them as follows:
- political (martial law);
- medical, social (disability, old age);
- cash (devaluation, crisis, low wages);
- geographical (uncomfortable areas, undeveloped areas);
- demographic (high percentage of single-parent families);
- personal (alcoholism, drug addiction, gambling);
- qualification (lack of education).
Poverty in Russia: numbers
GDP growth is directly related to the level of poverty of the population. But it depends not only on him. For example, in 2013 in our country, GDP grew: an increase of 1.3%, and in the following year another 0.6% increased. The decline in 2015 amounted to 3.8%, and the following year, a decline of another 0.3% occurred, which in total for all the years indicated gave almost zero.
It would seem that the number of poor should not increase, since the situation has returned to normal. But in addition to the change in GDP, currency depreciation doubled, while the volume of imported goods increased. Influenced by inflation, economic sanctions in 2014. In total, all factors provoked an increase in the percentage of the population below the poverty line.
Poverty in the world: a large-scale problem
Poverty is a problem that is relevant to all countries of the world, albeit in varying degrees. Traditionally, the republics of Africa divide the palm among themselves, and Asian countries, and even some European ones, do not lag behind them. But Switzerland, Luxembourg, the Scandinavian countries, Australia retain a high standard of living from year to year. The situation in Russia, to put it mildly, is not rosy.
The Russian Federation positions itself as a great power, but this does not negate internal problems. The territory of the country is huge, the industry is large and diverse, but GDP relative to other superpowers is low.
And how to fight?
Is it possible to solve the problem of poverty? Attempts to eradicate poverty have been made for a long time, they can be called an integral element of politics, social and financial spheres of the country, but they failed to find an effective universal method for eliminating poverty and social inequality.
It was invented two methods to combat poverty, in modern times widespread in developed countries. First of all, the state guarantees every citizen a fairly high minimum level of profit. Another way is timely and effective assistance to everyone faced with a difficult life situation.
Russia against poverty
In the Russian Federation, the situation is complicated by the fact that social poverty is accompanied by financial. This means that many citizens of the country have a stable job, but the level of wages is so low that they are unable to secure a minimum income. According to rough estimates, more than 30 million citizens receive less than 10, 000 rubles a month.
To cope with poverty in Russia, it is necessary to intensify the industry and ensure the stability of the economy in the country and in the world, to ensure a general increase in wages. The level will increase if the value of life becomes higher, and this can be achieved by developing and implementing appropriate social programs. At the same time, it cannot be guaranteed that the implementation of the above will produce the desired result. This is the first step to help determine what to do next.
Am I poor?
Assess the quality of life is quite difficult. Focusing on per capita income is not the most correct option. You also need to understand that many, talking about their income, downplay them or exaggerate. In addition, the family has access to resources outside of daily income. Also, families with the same level of income support the life of a different image and style, which affects the subjective understanding of poverty. Finally, the money in different parts of the country is commodity filled differently.
Some information about the standard of living can be obtained by examining the human housing used in everyday objects, equipment, clothing. These objects reflect the level, style, lifestyle, property, character of a person. At the same time, different economists have different perceptions of the criterion of providing resources, based on the potential of the property accumulated by the family.
Poverty and poverty: is there a difference?
The non-poor, the poor, the poor - the border between them is not always easy. One of the valuation methods is accumulated property. A number of scholars suggest that the category of "poor" include persons below the poverty line who are in debt and do not have the necessary property (appliances, furniture, clothing). The incomes of the poor are lower than the poor.
Analyzing what household items are necessary to maintain a normal standard of living, they usually distinguish a refrigerator, a TV, a vacuum cleaner, upholstered furniture, and storage furniture (slides, walls). If there are no two items from this list, we can safely say that a person lives outside of poverty, that is, in poverty. At the same time, the quality of items is often not taken into account in such an assessment, since the fact of presence / absence is sufficiently indicative. However, economists differ on this issue.
It is necessary to recognize that the analysis of the phenomenon of poverty in Russia (and in the world) should be carried out by evaluating a complex of interrelated factors. It is impossible to deprive attention of the resource factor, that is, it is important to analyze the access to which property the family has. At the same time assess the fact of moral obsolescence of household items.
The fight against poverty is a task for which there is no universal way. Politicians, economists, sociologists should work together, analyzing the current state and the dynamics of the situation in society, on the basis of which they develop such ways that will be effective in the realities of this state.