- Geographical position of the Vologda region
- Economy of the region
- General data on the population of the region
- Reduction of the population of the region
- Migration dynamics
- Dynamics of the working age population
- Demographic Projections
- Social protection of the population of the Vologda region
The Vologda region is one of the age-old Russian regions with a high share of the Russian population and a long history of development. All this, together with the natural conditions, determines the lifestyle and traditions prevailing in this region. The relatively low population density, a large proportion of rural residents and negative demographic dynamics are typical of this and its neighboring regions.
Geographical position of the Vologda region
The region is located in the northern part of the European territory of Russia, in a zone of moderately continental and moderately cold climate. The summer is short and cool, the winter is long and relatively harsh. The area is a fairly large region, occupying an area of 144.5 thousand square meters. km It borders on the Arkhangelsk, Kirov, Kostroma, Tver, Yaroslavl, Leningrad, Novgorod regions and the Republic of Karelia.
The administrative center of the region is the city of Vologda, the industrial center is the city of Cherepovets. The districts of the Vologda region are 26 municipalities and two urban districts (Cherepovets and Vologda). More or less large cities are also considered Falcon and Great Ustyug.
Economy of the region
Gross domestic product in 2014 amounted to about 400 billion rubles. Based on one person in the same 2014, GDP is relatively low - 31st place among other regions of the Russian Federation. The situation is even worse in a number of rural areas of the Vologda region, which are depressed.
In economics, industry and agriculture occupy leading positions. The industrial sector is dominated by metallurgy, mechanical engineering, forestry and woodworking, pulp and paper, chemical and metalworking industries. In agriculture, dairy cattle breeding is the most important, which gives 70 percent of all agricultural products. In second place - timber harvesting.
Negative factors are the concentration of industry in one center (the city of Cherepovets) and the presence of a large number of depressed rural regions.
General data on the population of the region
As of the first month of 2016, the population of the Vologda Oblast was 1, 188, 000 people, of which rural inhabitants - 333 thousand, and urban population - 855 thousand. The share of the rural population was equal to 28 percent, which is considered to be quite high in comparison with the average indicators for Russia. The Vologda region occupies a leading position in the share of the Russian population, which is 97.3% of the total population. It is also in third place in terms of the prevalence of the Eastern Slavic population, second only to the Arkhangelsk and Bryansk regions. Demographic dynamics indicates a gradual decrease in the population of the Vologda region, more rapid than the average in Russia. Even in a relatively prosperous period of zero, the population decreased by more than 5%, which is several times more than the average in Russia. A relatively higher birth rate was characteristic for the 80s of the 20th century, as well as in the period after 2005. The low level was in the 90s and early 2000s. Nevertheless, the demographic dynamics in the region are somewhat better than in the most crisis Russian regions.
The average population density of the Vologda region as of 2017 was 8 people / km 2 .
Reduction of the population of the region
Natural population decline is the dominant demographic trend of the region. First of all, this is due to the low birth rate. Another reason is the tendency for outflow of the local population to other regions. In the period from 2000 to 2015, the population decreased by 106 thousand people, which is 8.2 percent. To a large extent, the decline in population is relevant for rural areas - here over the same period it reached 18 percent. This is largely due to the tendency for outflow of the population from the countryside to the cities.
At the same time, statistics on the mortality rate seem to indicate its decline while simultaneously increasing the average life expectancy (by 5 years). Probably, the decrease in mortality both in the region and in Russia as a whole was the result of anti-smoking programs and a decrease in the number of smokers in the general population. The prospects for improving the demographic situation in the region are still very vague, due to the growing share of the elderly population, changes in the psychology of people and the deterioration of the socio-economic situation in recent years.
The region is characterized by negative migration dynamics, when the number of those who left exceeds the number of arrivals. From 2006 to 2015, the difference between the departures and arrivals was 2063 people.
Dynamics of the working age population
Over the past 15 years since 2000, there has been a decrease in the number of people of working age (from 59.1 to 57.6%), while simultaneously increasing the number of pensioners. This situation contributes to the deterioration of the quality of life of people of working age. In quantitative terms, this figure is still small and amounts to only one and a half percent.
According to reports, in the coming years, the negative demographic dynamics will continue. According to the latest projections of Vologstat, in the period from 2017 to 2026, the population of the region will decrease by more than 40 thousand people, and in the next 5 years - at least another 30 thousand people. The increase in the share of the urban population of the Vologda region is expected to be 7%. Due to this, in the period from 2017 to 2031, rural residents will be a third less. The number of young people will noticeably (by 15, 000 people). Even more (by 74 thousand people) will decrease the number of people of working age. In the Ministry of Labor and Employment of the Vologda Oblast such a decline was considered threatening.
Social protection of the population of the Vologda region
The demographic situation could be even worse than the current one, if it were not for the measures taken to improve the living conditions of the population, which were supported by the governor of the Vologda region. Actions already taken include maternity capital, additional monthly payments for the birth of the third child, additional land plots for large families. All this has led to an increase in the number of families with more than two children. However, the number of births (13.6 per 1, 000 people in 2014) is not enough to ensure the natural maintenance of the population at the current level, which requires further work in this direction.
In this connection, the governor of the Vologda region, O. A. Kuvshinnikov, approved a strategic program to improve social conditions in the region. It includes measures such as improving the quality of social services, promoting healthy lifestyles, increasing the safety of citizens, access to quality education, spiritual development, maintaining environmental balance, improving the management system and other measures. All this should help solve problems with the population of the Vologda region.