- general information
- The development of the territory
- First settlement
- First half of the 20th century
- State of the art
The copper capital of the Middle Urals, as the Upper-Pyshminians sometimes call their city, is one of the most prosperous cities in Russia. Thanks to the successful work of the town-forming enterprise of the Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company - Verkhnyaya Pyshma is confidently looking to the future.
A small satellite town of Yekaterinburg in the Sverdlovsk region almost merged with the administrative center of the region. The distance between the centers of the two cities is approximately 14 km. Located on the gentle slopes of the Middle Urals, from the east, at the source of the Pyshma River.
Verkhnyaya Pyshma has a developed engineering and social infrastructure and industry. The main industries are metallurgy, mechanical engineering and metalworking.
The development of the territory
The date of foundation of the settlement is considered to be 1701. In accordance with the archival documents, the first inhabitants of the village of Pyshma were coachmen and rudznattsy. Among them were many Old Believers, who fled from the persecution of the central provinces. In this village, the first stop was made by departing travelers along the Great Verkhotursk road from Yekaterinburg to Verkhoturye, through Nevyansk and Nizhny Tagil. Here they fed or changed horses before a long journey. For travelers traveling from the north, this was the last stop before the civilized world.
The impetus for the development of the region was the decree of the Senate of 1812, allowing all Russian nationals to seek and develop silver and gold mines with payment to the treasury of taxes. Already in 1814, the first gold deposits were discovered in the upper reaches of the Pyshma River.
By 1823, two gold placers were opened in the city district for the first time in the Urals. Began arrangement of deposits. In 1854, work began on the first mine - John the Theological or Ivanovo. In those days, all work was done manually, the drifts in the mines were lit with greasy candles. The working day lasted for 12-14 hours.
In the same year (April 3, 1854), an application was made to the Ural Mountain Board for the discovery of the Pyshminsko-Klyuchevskoye field. In the same year, mining began, two years later a small copper smelting plant was built and copper smelting began. The mining and transportation of ore employed 306 people, including 171 civilian workers and 135 serfs. The population of Verkhnyaya Pyshma was replenished at this time by experienced workers from the Utkinsky plant.
Gradually, a settlement called the Pyshminsko-Klyuchevskaya Copper Mine or simply the Copper Mine began to grow near the mining site. Were built barracks and huts for miners and lumberjacks, which stretched into the first street of the working village. It was called Pyshminskaya, now it is called the street to them. Syromolotova F. F. Due to the constant flooding of the mines with groundwater and the high cost of mining, the mine worked very irregularly. In 1875, the development of the field was closed, only occasionally resuming gold mining.
First half of the 20th century
At the beginning of the twentieth century, the copper smelter was launched again; by 1907, six shaft and two slab-type furnaces were already in operation. By this time, 700 people were employed in the mining and smelting of copper. In 1910, the factory from Countess Stenbok-Fermor was bought by the industrialist Yakovlev. In 1916, the production was reconstructed, an additional regenerative furnace was built for the smelting of semi-finished products and copper ore with a capacity of 100 tons per day. In the first months of 1917, a steam boiler exploded at the mine. The mine was destroyed, as a result of which the mining and smelting of copper was stopped.
During the civil war, the population of the Upper Pyshma formed a detachment of 200 fighters, who fought on the side of the Red Army. In the post-war years, the plant was restored, and it worked for another two years (1924–1926), a reflective workshop for ore processing and other productions was launched, and copper production began.
In 1929, work began on the construction of the Pyshminsky copper electrolyte plant, two years later the processing plant was built, and in 1934 the first anodic copper was smelted. At present, this is OJSC "Uralelectromed" - the leading enterprise of the Ural Mining and Metallurgical Company. In 1938, the Copper Mine was given the status of a working village and the name Pyshma. According to the All-Union census of 1939, the number of inhabitants reached 12, 976 people.
State of the art
In 1946, Pyshma became the city of Upper Pyshma. In the postwar years, the re-equipment and expansion of the copper-smelting industry continued. The population of Verkhnyaya Pyshma in 1959 reached 30, 331 people. The city continued to improve, water supply and natural gas were installed. New schools, hospitals have been opened. New plants have been built, including the Ural Chemical Reagents Plant. In 1979, the population of Verkhnyaya Pyshma of the Sverdlovsk Region reached 42, 698 inhabitants. At the last Soviet census of 1989, 53, 102 citizens were counted. In the post-Soviet period, the development of industry continued, new enterprises were built, including a locomotive plant and a plant for processing non-ferrous metals. The population of the city of Verkhnyaya Pyshma in 2017 was 69, 117 people.