- General information
- The largest segments
- Brief description of the most important sectors
- Investment sector
- Scientific intersectoral complex
- Fuel and energy complex
- Chemical forest industry
- Military industry
The interbranch complex is a special integration structure. Within its framework, the interaction of different industrial sectors, activities. They are focused on the performance of any functions in the production and distribution of products. Next, we will take a closer look at what interbranch complexes exist.
The interbranch complex is a structure that can be formed within a separate industrial segment. He, in turn, stands out from the rest in accordance with the general division of labor. So, within the industry there are machine-building, fuel and energy, metallurgical and other interbranch industrial complexes.
The largest segments
There are various inter-industry complexes in the country. However, the largest of them stand out. These, in particular, include:
- Complex industries for the production of chemicals and construction materials.
- Military-industrial complex.
Brief description of the most important sectors
The fuel and energy interbranch complex includes an integrated system of the shale, peat, coal, oil, gas industry, heat and electric power, sectors for the production of energy and other types of equipment. They are united by a common goal aimed at meeting the needs for fuel, electricity, heat. The agroindustrial interbranch complex includes sectors of the economy that are heterogeneous in their focus. In particular, it includes the food industry, engineering for it, the release of plant protection products, mineral fertilizers, veterinary drugs. It also contains such sectors as agriculture, the construction of industrial facilities, including water management and ameliorative, agricultural engineering. The main task of the AIC is the food supply of the country.
Interindustry economic complexes are conditionally divided into functional and target. Allocation of the latter is based on the criteria for participation in the education of the final product. Also the reproducing principle is fundamental to their isolation. This category of target segments include engineering, fuel energy, agriculture. It also includes transport and mineral-intersectoral complexes. The separation of functional sectors is carried out in accordance with the principle of specialization on a specific function. This category includes scientific, technical, investment and infrastructure complexes. Let us consider in more detail the inter-industry complexes of Russia.
This interbranch complex consists of production, construction of construction materials, and engineering. The purpose of this sector is to commission facilities related to fixed assets. This intersectoral complex is involved in the technical re-equipment, expansion and increase of the level of capacities. In its framework also carried out the reconstruction of objects.
Scientific intersectoral complex
It combines two sectors. In particular, it includes science and the labor process itself, which ensures production. This form is designed to help increase the speed of development of innovations and their effective implementation in practice. This intersectoral complex includes research institutes, technological organizations, design bureaus and other enterprises of a given orientation.
Fuel and energy complex
This interbranch complex is a complex system of production and generation of energy and fuel, their transportation, distribution and consumption. The development of the fuel and energy complex has an impact on the scale, technical and economic indicators and the dynamics of industry. At the same time, the approach to energy and fuel sources is one of the key requirements for the territorial organization of production. However, from the position of the national economy, the existing allocation of resources is irrational. The main energy consumers occupy the European part of the country, with about 80% of the geological reserve concentrated in the eastern region. Transportation costs increase the cost of the final product. The fuel and energy complex performs a regional task. In the immediate vicinity of the sources developed a powerful infrastructure. It favors the development of industry, education, and the enlargement of cities and nearby villages. However, the share of the fuel and energy complex accounts for about 90% of greenhouse gas emissions, half of the total amount of atmospheric pollution and 1/3 of harmful substances discharged into the water. All this, of course, can not be regarded as a positive effect.
This interbranch complex involves sectors within which various metals are produced. About 90% of them are black (iron and alloys derived from it). At the same time, the volume of non-ferrous metal is much larger; in this connection, the enterprises involved in their extraction and processing are of great importance for the segments that provide for the development of scientific and technological revolution in the national economy. Russia is considered one of the leading countries in the production of metal ores, as well as smelting. About 1.3 million workers are employed in this segment, 1/8 of all production capacity is concentrated.
Chemical forest industry
It is a complex of technologically interacting enterprises. At the same time, chemical plants in this sector are of particular importance. Their role is determined by the widespread use of the products they produce. The chemical industry has an extensive raw material base. This includes:
- Industrial waste.
- Minerals and so on.
The main raw materials are products of oil refining, coking coal - specially prepared materials.
This complex is not distinguished by a particular focus on the domestic consumer. Most of the products that are manufactured in the eastern region are exported to the European territory of Russia. The needs of the Far East and Siberia in equipment and machinery are 70-90% satisfied by supplies from the western regions and at the expense of imports. Placement of enterprises engaged in the machine-building complex, directly depends on the nature of the product: mass of products, breadth of the nomenclature, scale of production of a single, sectoral, general industrial application. The distribution efficiency is influenced by several factors:
- The volume of labor resources.
- Specialization, combination, cooperation, concentration of production.
- Proximity to the source of raw materials.
- Scientific and technical development.
- The volume of transport activities and costs.
This complex includes a set of testing, research institutions and organizations, as well as enterprises engaged in the production of relevant products. Their general activity is aimed at developing, storing, manufacturing, setting on service of special and military equipment, ammunition, ammunition and other things. All these products are intended for export or for use by the internal security forces of the state. Representatives of the Ministry of Defense and other departments and bodies can act as organizations and institutions-customers. These subjects influence the decision-making on the creation of individual types of weapons, the statement of the technical task, the holding of a competition among potential performers, the approval of developed projects for re-equipment. Since January 2008, all purchases in accordance with the decision of the Military Industrial Commission are carried out through the Federal Agency for the supply of materiel, special and military equipment, as well as weapons.