- What is included in the space?
- Main features
- Characteristics of the Russian space
- Development of the Russian space
- Integration economic spaces
- Eurasian space
Any state begins with a common living space, it is ultimately the main reason for the formation of peoples from scattered groups of people. And the first distinctive feature of an ethnos is a single economic space. Living on a common territory, people enter into social and economic relations, gradually developing the "rules of the hostel". The creation of common rules, the removal of barriers within the association and, conversely, protection from "alien" participants in economic life are the initial incentives for creating a single economic space of the state. The increase in the volume and intensity of international trade, the increased division of labor and specialization led to the creation of regional common markets. The formation of a single economic space occurs in many subregions and entire continents, for example, the European Union, NAFTA, MERCOSUR, Asean.
A common economic space is a territory or several territories where the rules of economic life are the same in form and content. In this space there is a common currency, common legal norms, a common system of economic relations, a common market with the free movement of goods and services, capital and labor resources. In such territories, there are unified authorities, fiscal authorities and an economic security system. The common space includes both air and sea parts of the territory. The boundaries of the economic space can be formal, for example, administrative, state, and informal - these are zones of influence, service, and aggression. Now, a single economic space is often understood as integration associations that are at different stages of development. And, accordingly, in varying degrees fit this definition. For integration associations, a single economic space is primarily a freedom of movement of goods and services, capital and human resources. Further in the development process, the rest of the signs are achieved.
The creation of a single economic space, which can be formed spontaneously or consciously, is necessary to ensure conditions for comfortable living and economic life, and in the longer term, to intensify ties with the outside world. More fully, the goal of organizing a single economic space is:
- ensuring the conditions for an effective and free common market for goods and services, capital and labor resources;
- stable development of institutional infrastructure, ensuring economic restructuring;
- pursuing a common fiscal, monetary, industrial, trade and economic policy;
- organization of a unified transport, energy and information system.
What is included in the space?
The common economic space is not only the territory of a country (or a group of countries), but also includes its sea area and aeroterritory. The territory is a limited part of the Earth’s surface, with a certain area on which objects are located, including settlements, industry, energy, agricultural enterprises and other objects connected with each other by transport and engineering infrastructure. It should be noted that the underground part of the territory is increasingly being used, for example, the metro, supermarkets, communications laying. The economic sea area of the country includes the territorial waters, the exclusive economic zone, where the country has the rights to navigation, fishing, and mining. Economic activity is also carried out in the air over the territory, for example, national rights to air transport and mobile communications.
By organizing their space, countries may also enter into wider common markets, and the degree of development may be very different. Nevertheless, it is possible to single out some common signs of a single economic space:
- unified management institutions and national development goals (strategic goal setting), a common system of values;
- the national system of maintaining the economic integrity, stability and sustainability of the historically established space;
- holistic national reproduction, the country should be able to develop, relying on its own economic opportunities;
- optimal placement within the single space of productive forces and developed economic relations;
- greater mobility and the absence of barriers to the movement of resources, financial, labor, commodity;
- the presence of specific economic relations and forms that develop because of the peculiarities of space, including geographic, geopolitical, natural;
- general economic security and interaction with other spaces.
Signs of a national single economic space are shaped by the following prerequisites:
- objective - such as the current level of development of the productive forces;
- subjective, national-specific, including natural, geographical, geopolitical.
An important sign of a single space is the existence of a national development goal. This may be, for example, sovereignty, modernization of the economy, the integrity of the territory.
The common economic space is a complex multi-level system, with a multitude of various factors affecting the current state and capacity for sustainable development. Basically, there are four groups of factors that form space:
- spatial, including informational, demographic and institutional, as a system of formal and informal rules and restrictions that determine the economic behavior of a person;
- locations that include natural conditions (geographical location, natural resources, climatic conditions, etc.);
- economic factors (existing production potential, infrastructure, quality of management, entrepreneurial skills), quality and quantity of labor resources, social climate and many others;
- macroeconomic, scientific and technological, investment, innovation and integration;
- preferences, including tax, financial tariff and customs, trade benefits.
National specific factors include both economic and non-economic, including humanitarian, social and cultural, which together sometimes characterize as a single socio-economic space of the state. Some researchers include as a separate factor - time.
Within the framework of a single economic space, multiple socio-economic processes of formation and development take place. Social, because the goal of almost any activity is the satisfaction of human needs, which forces him to participate in social production. The living conditions of people and relationships in society affect the ability to enter into certain economic ties that make it possible to satisfy needs. These interests, in obtaining a portion of the public good, are the motive for the activities of people who proceed in the form of an economic process.
The processes occurring in a single economic space are divided into two main types: natural, which are carried out by man in the process of interaction with nature, and public, arising in society about the production and distribution and consumption of products. Both processes are closely related and, in addition, are under regulatory influence. For example, if applied to an economy, depending on the type of economy (planned, market, mixed), national traditions, religious practice can have a significant impact on the social part. All processes are carried out through the interaction of elements of a single economic space, including enterprises, natural resources, institutions, landscape, climatic conditions.
Characteristics of the Russian space
Russia can be considered not only as a country, but also a large integration project, primarily because of the huge geographical area, which is several times larger than the European Union. The common economic space of Russia is distinguished by the extreme heterogeneity of the territories:
- natural and climatic, the country is located from the tundra to the subtropics, any kind of landscape, a vast body of water;
- civilizational, more than 180 nationalities live in the country, representatives of all major religions of the world, who have the most diverse systems of values and behaviors;
- economic heterogeneity, due to historical, natural and economic reasons, certain parts of the country have a very different level of development, from the post-industrial economies of large cities and northern suburbs, whose people live by hunting, almost in a pre-industrial economy.
- administrative-political, federative state structure, which includes the territories of national and autonomous republics, regions and territories.
Development of the Russian space
Each economic space establishes the rules determining the existence of the country's subjects. The Constitution of Russia guarantees the fundamental freedoms of economic life, including the free flow of financial, human and commodity resources, and the protection of competition. The law prohibits the establishment of customs and trade barriers between the territories of the country, the issuance of other money. The creation of a Russian single economic space, after the collapse of the Soviet Union, was difficult, while it was necessary to isolate its economy from other territories of the once-common state, the transition to a market-based regulation method was carried out.
The heterogeneity of the territories and different national structures also hampered the organizational process. Many regions of Russia had closer economic relations with neighboring countries than with the center. Despite the obvious successes in the formation of a single economic space, there is still a strong unevenness in the development of individual parts of the country and not all in-country barriers are eliminated. In addition, the development of new technologies requires the formation and new common spaces, for example, information.
Integration economic spaces
The increasing degree of globalization of the world economy is encouraging countries to join regional integration groups to increase the competitiveness of their economies. Naturally, the degree of a country's involvement in a single economic space of association may be different. The sovereignty of the country, national, religious characteristics and obligations, etc., are strong constraints to integration. Integration processes can take many different forms, for example, the space of the European Union and the common economic space of Europe do not coincide, since the latter includes four more countries that are not The EU.
Cooperation is governed by the European Economic Area Agreement. The presence of such a common market shows the difficulty of creating a common space. Countries such as Norway and Iceland are not part of the EU only because of their unwillingness to share fishing quotas and fund general agricultural programs, which they simply do not have.
The EU most closely approached the characteristics of a full-fledged common economic space. In addition to the free movement of resources, most countries use the single currency, the European Parliament works, and other supranational bodies have been created. Countries coordinate macroeconomic, monetary and monetary policy, delegating a significant part of sovereignty to the general government. After the accession of Eastern European countries to the EU, too much heterogeneity in the level of economies began to have a strong effect on development. However, the European Union is still the most successful project for the integration of a single economic space.
Creating a single Eurasian economic space is a logical continuation of the reintegration of the territories of the once united state. The initially established Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan in 2015 became a common market for five post-Soviet countries, including Armenia and Kyrgyzstan. The Eurasian Common Economic Space is a space from the territories of countries where similar market mechanisms of economic regulation operate, harmonized legal norms are applied, coordinated macroeconomic policies are implemented to ensure the free movement of goods, capital and labor.
In the common space there is a single customs code, many tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade have been removed. At the same time, customs borders were removed inside the space, but border and migration control was maintained. The supranational governing bodies, the Eurasian Commission, which regulates and controls certain aspects of the functioning of the single-space economy, have been created. The integration process will be long-term, multi-level and multi-speed in nature, due to the very large differences between countries in economic development and national traditions.