Votkinsk hydroelectric station. History of creation, specifications and incidents

Anonim

Votkinsk HPP is a hydroelectric power station built on the Kama River. About her and the story goes in the material.

Geographical location of the station

The construction was erected near the town of Tchaikovsky, Perm Region. A total of 3 hydroelectric power plants were built in the Volga-Kama cascade. All of them function to this day. Downstream of the Kama River stands the Nizhnekamsk Hydroelectric Power Station, higher up is the Kama Hydroelectric Station in the city of Perm.

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The length of the river on which the Votkinsk hydroelectric station is located is 2009 km, the catchment area is 184 thousand square meters. km, the average long-term water consumption in the waterworks - 1710 m 3 / s.

Hydroelectric power is one of the points in the network that generates electricity to supply the Urals Federal District. The main task of construction:

  • work during peak load on the grid;
  • provision of a reserve, as well as provision of electricity to the region in the event of unforeseen failures;
  • regulation of the flow of water on the river to ensure the safe passage of vessels, as well as to guarantee trouble-free operation of facilities serving for water intake.

General information

The construction of the Votkinsk hydroelectric station on the river lasted 10 years, in the period from 1955 to 1965, according to the riverbed scheme. The construction project was created by the Institute "Lengidroproekt".

Structure of construction:

  1. The overflow dam, which reaches a height of 44.5 m, length - 191 m.
  2. The main building, which has a length of 273 m.
  3. Gateway with a single camera for the passage of ships.
  4. Earthen dam. Moreover, their total length is 4.77 km, and the maximum height is 35.5 m.

The plant's capacity is 1020 MW, the average power generation is 2.6 billion kW.

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To date, the station equipment is highly outdated and is undergoing an update process. Thanks to pressure structures, the Votkinsk reservoir was formed. Its total area is 1120 km 2 . As a result of the appearance of an artificial reservoir, more than 6.5 thousand buildings were threatened with flooding, 73 thousand hectares of agricultural land were flooded.

The history of the construction of hydro

In 1955, the USSR Council of Ministers ordered the construction of a hydropower station on the Kama River. Design and estimate documentation was developed by the specialists of the Leningrad institute “Hydroproject”. According to the documents, the building was designed for a generating capacity of 540 thousand kW. Subsequently, the engineers have increased the capacity of facilities in 2 times. The cost of the project was 246.5 million rubles. However, during the construction we managed to save 5 million rubles.

The launch of the new station was carried out in stages. The work of the first two units began in late 1961. After 2 years, they launched the last - the tenth unit of the power station. In the summer of 1966, testing of hydroelectric power plants was completed successfully. She was accepted into commercial operation.

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Accident on hydroelectric power station in 1962

In 1962, the first accident occurred at the Votkinsk hydroelectric station. It happened during construction work in one of the gateway chambers. As a result of the error of the designers on May 10, a massive collapse of the sluice wall, which is 110 m long, occurred. As a result of the disaster, water gushed into the inter-chamber space and into one of the chambers. The steamer “Dmitry Furmanov”, which moored near the scene of the accident, was dragged into the resulting opening. The crew tried to avoid shipwreck by turning on engines at full power. But it was all to no avail.

The passenger ship “Kriushi” was able to save the passenger ship, carrying 475 people. The sailors threw cables to the distressed ship for a hold, and then by common efforts they avoided the tragedy. While the sailors fought for human lives, the engineers managed to block the flow of water into the airlock.

As a result, 21 people died, 15 people were injured. The state suffered major damage, the size of which is 2.5 million rubles. Following the results of the inspection, high-ranking officials were convicted, among them R.K. Radetsky, Acting Chief Engineer, and V.I. Sevastyanov, the head in charge of the construction of the construction on the Kama River.

Hydropower designers avoided criminal liability. However, an indirect confirmation of their guilt is the fact that they did not receive state awards for their work. At the same time, about 350 builders who participated in the construction of a giant structure presented for the awards. The exemption of a team of engineers from legal proceedings is explained by the fact that in 1962 the Aswan hydro system was built. This building was also designed by specialists from Hydroproject. The authorities decided not to interrupt the construction of a large structure.

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Accident at hydroelectric station in 2010

Photos of the Votkinsk hydroelectric station, made in the summer of 2010, confirm the fact that Kama became shallowed as a result of the anomalous heat. Such weather has led to disruptions in the movement of ships on the river. August 27, the passenger ship “F. I. Panferov "and completely stranded during the passage of the lock of the power station. Experts found out that at the time of the accident the draft was 250 cm, and for a steamer that was in trouble, the minimum draft was calculated at 275 cm. As a result, the vessel ran aground.

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