For a qualitative assessment of the results of economic activity of the enterprise used economic analysis. At the same time, it is necessary to clearly distinguish between two concepts of economic analysis: “methodology” and “methods”.
The methodology is considered to be the creation of a peculiar model of the relationship between performance indicators and factors that influence these results.
In contrast to the methodology, the methods of economic analysis contribute to a comprehensive and systematic study of the influence of certain factors on the success rates of an enterprise, followed by a generalization of the obtained indicators.
As a tool, basically, a special system of indicators is used, which characterizes the economic activity of the enterprise and allows to increase production efficiency.
The main methods of economic analysis are based on the knowledge of such basic sciences as economics, statistics and mathematics.
To economic methods include:
- grouping homogeneous indicators for the study of relationships in complex phenomena;
- comparison carried out by comparison of the analyzed data;
- the balance method, which consists in comparing the two indicators and bringing them to a conditional equilibrium;
- graphic way.
Statistical methods of economic analysis involve the use of such methods:
- relative values (percentage, specific weight, index, coefficient); - average values;
- absolute differences - the change in the result is calculated as the product of the deviation of the analyzed factor and the base (or reported) value of the second factor;
- chain substitutions, which provides for the calculation of intermediate values of the overall indicator by gradually replacing the basic values of the indicators on the reporting.
The statistical methods of economic analysis, in addition to those listed above, include the coefficient and index methods, the construction of a variational series. The coefficient method is widely used in economic analysis in conjunction with factor analysis and is represented by a system of relative indicators from the financial statements (mainly the balance sheet and profit and loss statement).
The index method is based on relative values, determined by the ratio of the actual data in the reporting period to the corresponding indicator of the base period (or the planned one).
The method of regression and correlation analysis is used both in statistics and in mathematics. Through its use is determined by the relationship between indicators that are not in functional dependence.
Mathematical methods include mathematical programming, modeling (matrix calculus, the theory of inter-sectoral balance) and various research methods (for example, game theory).
Economic analysis is considered to be primarily a factor analysis. Factor analysis involves the transition from the initial specific factor system to the final (necessary) factor system. In this case, the identification of the full set of factors that have in one degree or another impact on the financial performance of the company is carried out.
All of these methods of economic analysis can be used in conjunction with a full analysis of the activities of the business entity. From the very beginning, for the analysis of financial statements, the methods of grouping indicators are used, the comparison of these indicators and their graphical presentation. But the study of the laws of development of the analyzed objects is carried out using statistical methods for analyzing the time series.