- Disclosure of the concept
- The movement of objects
- Types of objects in the production process
- Material objects
- Intangible objects
- Types of objects by role in economic activity
- Production structure
- Types of objects by degree of use
- Object Types by Ownership
Fixed assets - one of the most important elements of production. They represent a set of values that have material and material expression and are used as a means of labor for a long time or several times. At the same time, their natural form does not change, and the cost is transferred to the products and services created. Classification of fixed assets is made on several grounds. Therefore, their composition is quite diverse.
Disclosure of the concept
The concept of fixed assets - one of the most important in accounting. This category includes objects that meet the following characteristics:
- Use in the process of creating products, providing services, performing work, as well as for the needs related to the management of the enterprise.
- Service life not less than a year.
- The company has no plans to resell the object.
- The facility’s ability to generate income for the enterprise in the future.
- Cost is above a certain value. Since 2006, objects are included that cost more than 40, 000 rubles per unit.
The concept and classification of fixed assets, as well as their characteristics, are set out in the Regulations on Accounting approved by the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation. It is called "Accounting for fixed assets" and is denoted by the abbreviation number - PBU 6/01.
The combination of all fixed assets on the balance sheet of an enterprise forms its production and technical base and determines its production capacity.
The movement of objects
Fixed assets have a long service life, during which they are in constant motion. Their life cycle begins with the entry into the enterprise. Then, during operation, they gradually wear out, undergo repair, make movements within the organization. As a result, fixed assets are dropped out of the enterprise due to dilapidation or lack of expediency of further use.
The increase in the efficiency of their use is achieved by increasing the time and shift work, reducing downtime, productivity growth and output.
Types of objects in the production process
There is a classification of fixed assets by their participation in the production process. On this basis, two types of described objects are distinguished:
The first type operates in the field of material production. Such objects are involved in the production process repeatedly. They gradually wear out. Their cost is transferred to the manufactured product. This happens in parts as it is used.
The second type is not involved in the production process. The cost of fixed non-productive assets disappears in consumption. These include buildings that are intended for housing or have a cultural and community purpose and are listed on the balance sheet of the organization. They do not have a direct impact on the volume of production, but indirectly affect the results of operations. Associated with them is improving the welfare of employees and raising their standard of living. In the end, this will have a positive impact on the performance of the organization.
The essence and classification of fixed assets determine their role in the labor process. They characterize the capabilities of the enterprise for the production of products. They also show the level and scale of technical equipment of labor. Increasing the basic production assets will increase these indicators. Their renewal and improvement are the most important conditions for the production of high-quality products with a reduction in labor costs, an increase in labor productivity and a decrease in production costs.
Enterprises carry out regular statistical reporting showing the presence and movement of objects, their revaluation. Sample surveys are conducted.
Classification of fixed assets occurs according to their types and purpose. For this, a special handbook has been developed. It is called the All-Russian Classifier of Fixed Assets (OKOF). It is part of the Unified System for Classification and Coding of Techno-Economic and Social Information (ESKK).
During its development, international and Russian regulatory documents, standards and accounting regulations have been taken into account.
Classification of fixed assets is carried out at all enterprises and institutions according to OKOF. This handbook contains information that helps in solving important problems. The composition and classification of fixed assets, their condition, capital-intensiveness, capital-labor ratio, capital productivity, recommended standards for capital repairs - this is only a part of the indicators revealed with the help of OKOF.
Fixed assets are divided into two types: tangible and intangible. It depends on their purpose and use in the activities of the organization.
Thus, the classification of fixed assets in the material category includes the following objects:
1) Non-residential buildings. These are objects whose purpose is the creation of conditions for labor, the storage of material values. This includes buildings of social and cultural importance. For example, buildings of factories, warehouses, pumping stations, laboratories.
2) Residential buildings. It is important to understand that this group includes objects intended solely for non-temporary residence.
3) Structures. To this group the classification of fixed assets of the enterprise includes engineering and construction facilities that ensure the implementation of the production process. At the same time, they are understood as separate structures, including devices that form one whole with it. For example: bridges, oil wells, trunk pipelines.
4) Machinery and equipment. This group includes devices designed to convert information, energy, materials. The classification of fixed assets of an enterprise divides this item into subgroups:
- Power machines and equipment. This includes objects that produce or convert energy.
- Working machines and equipment. This includes all technological equipment.
- Information equipment - computing equipment, information storage media, office equipment, communication system equipment.
5) Vehicles designed to move goods and people: wagons, locomotives, ships, icebreakers, buses, trailers, airplanes.
6) Production and household equipment. The first type includes containers used for storing liquids, containers for bulk materials, as well as furniture designed to facilitate production operations. The second type includes objects that are not used in the production process. For example, fire-fighting items, watches.
7) Productive, breeding, working cattle. This includes animals that are repeatedly or permanently used to obtain any products. For example, cows, camels, sheep. Also in this group includes animal producers. This does not include young animals and cattle for slaughter.
8) Perennial plantations. This category includes various green spaces. For example, park trees, vegetation, forming alleys.
The classification of fixed assets to intangible assets includes intellectual property, software for computers, high-tech industrial technologies, databases, mineral exploration costs. That is, objects that do not have physical form fall into this category.
The classification and structure of fixed assets excludes the following from their composition:
- All items with a lifespan of less than one year.
- Items worth less than 40, 000 rubles per item. At this point it is worth making a reservation. Agricultural machinery, mechanized construction tools, productive and working livestock are fixed assets, even if their value is less than the specified amount.
- Temporary facilities, fixtures, devices. The costs of their construction are included in overhead costs and are included in the cost of construction and installation.
- Machines and equipment that are listed as finished products in warehouses, in transit or put into installation.
Types of objects by role in economic activity
The classification of basic production assets distinguishes among them two parts, depending on their role in the economic activity of the enterprise. So, working machines and equipment, technical installations, measuring devices and devices are directly involved in the production process. They form the active part. Buildings and equipment have an indirect impact on production. They are the passive part.
The share of the active part shows the degree of technical excellence, production capacity, capabilities of the enterprise. The proportion of each part can be distinguished from the structure of fixed assets.
The share of each group of objects in their total value characterizes the production structure. The amount of output per 1 ruble of fixed assets depends on how much the active part prevails over the passive part.
This indicator is the highest in enterprises with good technical equipment. The production structure of fixed assets is not the same even in enterprises of the same industry.
In engineering, the active part, as a rule, is less than 50%. In the specific weight the passive part prevails. For example, buildings.
In the oil industry, on the contrary, the active part prevails. Most of the production process in this industry takes place in open areas. The main production process takes place with the help of wells, pipelines. That is, the share of the active part of fixed assets prevails over the passive.
Objects are also characterized by age structure. According to it, fixed assets are distributed in age groups with intervals of five years. An important task is to prevent excessive aging of objects.
Types of objects by degree of use
The classification and structure of fixed assets according to such indicator as the degree of use is as follows:
- Objects in use. This includes all fixed assets listed on the balance sheet of the enterprise.
- Objects in reserve - fixed assets temporarily decommissioned.
- Objects under reconstruction, partial liquidation.
- Objects on conservation.
Object Types by Ownership
By ownership of fixed assets are classified as follows:
- owned enterprises;
- in operational management and economic management;
- leased without foreclosure.