The financial contours and technological solutions of the modern information world are changing so rapidly that it is impossible to keep track of the variable economic meaning of familiar words, meanings and concepts. Say what is agglomeration? It would seem so much simpler: a region of a country or a large industrial center, around which industrial and technological chains are formed, local labor and financial capital markets, scientific and educational centers.
However … this picture is typical for the 30-70-ies, when the issue of the formation of industrial agglomerations was relevant. But the fact of the matter is that the market has already ceased to be exclusively industrial. Plants and factories are given completely to be devoured by financial instruments - loans, deposits, derivatives. And in place of traditional technologies comes information and control over information flows. Now it is more than difficult to answer the question of what is agglomeration. Especially if we take into account the administrative domestic experience in the construction of artificial agglomerations.
The Russian motivation was different from the West European one: instead of economic efficiency, the convenience of bureaucratic management was put forward in the first place. Cities and towns, respectively, "attached" to the basic industrial center, which determined any prospects for the development of subordinate "satellites". In these conditions, the terms of the economy are not valid. The main thing was to build a model of centripetal management of all the resources provided. Needless to say, not to mention the control, which simply "rolls over."
The dictionary on economics, issued by the Infra publishing house in 1999, gives the following definition: agglomeration is “a compact arrangement, a grouping of settlements, united not only in a spatial sense, but with developed production, cultural, and recreational connections”. In other words, a little changed, but the Soviet understanding of this term still remains.
In order to understand what agglomeration is, you need to understand how modern production is organized. So the first is no vertical, hierarchical connections. Relations are exclusively equal, horizontal, based on mutual interest. If there is no such interest, then the production bundle does not work. The second - the production cycle consists of three components: development of an idea (innovative solution) - financial instruments - technological solution. Thus, the answer to the question of what is agglomeration lies in the plane of labor organization (not production in the “classical” meaning) so that in the same space and as soon as possible, subject to optimal investment, create a successful new product on the market . And best of all - a new brand.
In Russian conditions, speaking of what agglomeration is, it is necessary to clarify that at best we should talk about inter-municipal cooperation. This is due not only to the fact that there are still critically many enterprises in municipal and state ownership. The point is the lack of financial and managerial tools for the formation of such associations as agglomerations. And there is no technological or scientific base either. One enterprise, even the largest, is not a reason to unite … We need a conceptual project, like the project of the Ruhr area or Silicon Valley, then there will be a result. And in the form of an order, as we love it, nothing happens ….