India (another name is Bharata) is one of the largest states in the world. In addition, it is a country with such long traditions that it can rightly be called "the cradle of civilization." The achievements of India in ancient and middle ages in the field of medicine, culture, philosophical and religious teachings had a great influence on the emergence and further development of the civilization of the East.
The area of India is quite extensive. The country with a length of 3214 km from north to south and 2033 km from west to east is located not only on the territory of the Indian subcontinent (in South Asia), with a triangular wedge jutting into the Indian Ocean, but also occupies islands in the southeast of the Arabian Sea. If we compare the area of India in square meters. km and population, it becomes clear that this is a very densely populated country. It ranks second in the world in terms of population, and in territory it is only seventh.
The area of India in square meters. km - over 3, 000, 000. Population - 1, 220, 800, 359 people (according to 2013 data). For fans of specific figures, we can specify that the area of India for 2014 is 3, 287, 263 square meters. km The country is bordered by the following states: Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Bhutan, Nepal, Burma and Bangladesh. In addition, the sea straits separate India from Sri Lanka and Indonesia.
The national composition is diverse. The vast area of India is inhabited by Dravidians, Telugu, Marathi, Hindustans, Bengalis and many small tribes and nationalities. About 80% of them are Muslims, about 14% are Christians, there are also Sikhs and Buddhists. Of the many languages spoken by the people of India, the state is recognized 18. The official national languages of the country are English and Hindi.
Life expectancy for men in India is on average 58 years, for women it is 59. Since the beginning of the last century, men have always been a little longer than women (1000 by 929). In the last decades of the twentieth century, thanks to the development of medicine and the improvement of living standards, the life expectancy of Indians has almost doubled.
At the same time, the country continues to maintain a high birth rate due to moral and religious norms and a low level of literacy of the population, which leads to a tense demographic situation.
Geographically, the entire area of India is divided into states (there are 28 of them), and there are also 7 union territories. The state division left over from the time of colonial dependence was reorganized in 1956. The boundaries of the new states were formed on the basis of national language. Despite a gradual increase in the standard of living in the country, Indians still mostly live below the poverty line. Two thirds of the world's lowest income people live in India. The main occupation of the population is agriculture. India is the homeland and the main supplier to the world agrarian market of many crops: sugarcane, rice, cotton. She also has a leading role in the production of tea, peanuts, etc. In addition, the state is rich in natural resources. Coal and manganese ore reserves here are among the largest in the world.
India’s light industry is represented by both modern and handicraft enterprises. Indian cotton fabrics, gorgeous silk, leather, furs and jewels are famous all over the world. The leading place in exports belongs to products made of precious and semiprecious stones, the beauty of which the country is legally proud of.
Each state, city, and each locality has its own craft industries. The government of India stimulates the development of various industries by creating industrial parks - areas with lower taxes and the price of land. The currency of the country is the Indian rupee.
Almost the entire area of India is occupied by the Deccan Plateau. In the northern part of the state is the highest mountain system in the world - the Himalayas. Approximately 3/4 of the territory of the peninsula consists of plains and plateaus, framed by mountains from the west and east. The main rivers are the Ganges, the Indus and the Brahmaputra, their fertile deltas belong to the most densely populated areas of the country.
The climate on the peninsula is mostly tropical. In the period of the summer monsoon, from 70 to 90% of the total norm of precipitation is spilled. The Shillong Plateau in India is considered the wettest place on the continents of the globe.
Vegetation is represented by savannas, steppes and mountain meadows, and forests: from coniferous to tropical evergreens, which cover about 1/4 of the entire territory.
Fauna in India is as diverse as anywhere else in the world. Many representatives of the fauna in the country are revered as sacred, their killing is prohibited, therefore, often in the cities and on the roads you can see freely located cows, monkeys, various birds.
Herds of wild elephants are still preserved in the southern forests of the country; occasionally there are almost extinct rhinos and even tigers. India is the owner of the world's largest livestock population (cows, goats, buffaloes, camels). Elephants, which since ancient times are subject to training here, are also considered sacred animals.
India is a beautiful exotic country, extremely attractive for tourists, each of whom will find something in her.