- Spread the design
- Wheel lock
- Appearance in europe
- The principle of the lock
- Preparing for a shot
Flintlock - a special design for igniting gunpowder in a firearm (sparks in it are obtained by striking the flint on the chair). This type of castle was invented at the beginning of the 14th century in the countries of the Middle East. The weapon in which this device was used began to be called flint.
Spread the design
Despite the numerous advantages of the device compared to others, it completely supplanted the wick and other types of locks only in the middle of the 17th century. The distribution of the flint also depended on the characteristics of the region, the presence of silicon, iron ore and other materials in its territory. After 200 years, the flintlock replaced capsule systems.
Gunsmiths tried to eliminate all the drawbacks of the wick design, developing a flintlock. Guns equipped with a variety of mechanisms.
At the beginning of the 18th century, German masters invented a combined flint wheel lock. The main part of the device was a wheel made of steel with a small notch, which was connected to a spring. Sharply ground flint was pressed to the wheel, which was fastened in the clamp. When loading a weapon, the spring was turned on with a key. When the trigger was pressed, the wheel rotated, the carved sheaf of sparks set fire to gunpowder on the shelf, and the ignition ignited the main charge. Wheel lock was more reliable than other designs. It was used in the manufacture of expensive pistols and hunting weapons. But its rapid spread was hampered by the complexity of the device.
The flint period is a whole epoch in the history of weapons. His appearance allowed the creation of mass production of rifles and other weapons. From among European countries, the flintlock was first used in Spain at the beginning of the 16th century. He got there from the Moors, who borrowed this construction from the Arabs. These locks differed in compactness of massive parts.
Similar devices at the same time developed gunsmiths from different countries. They quickly spread throughout the continent. In different countries, their designs were different, but each of them had its own advantages.
Appearance in europe
In Europe, the appearance of a flintlock was greeted very wary. Louis XIV banned the use of designs in the French army under threat of death. His infantrymen used a wick lock, and cavalrymen used wheeled weapons. To circumvent the ban, some gunsmiths created new types of combined locks. But such devices were used for a very short time.
The introduction of a number of improvements to the design has made flint weapons relatively reliable. The main merit in this belongs to the gunsmiths from Germany. German design has been recognized in many countries. Flintlock pistols were especially popular.
The principle of the lock
The principle of operation of the flintlock is as follows: gunpowder is ignited by sparks arising from a single blow of flint to a flint. The impact type of the design increased the load on the parts of the mechanism, as well as the requirements for the materials used.
When developing the device it was necessary to solve several problems:
- choose the optimal form of flint;
- reduce the percentage of misfires;
- when descending, flint had to meet with a flint at a certain point and carve the necessary number of sparks in one direction;
- the trigger should not hit the shelf with gunpowder.
This allowed to get rid of the wick and simplify the design of the lock compared to the wheel lock. Kinematics of a shock lock are much more complicated than in other types of construction. The shock method of producing a spark required a stronger fighting spring.
In 1610, the gunsmith from France, Marin Le Bourgeois, studied the properties of various samples and created a battery lock, which spread throughout the world over the next three centuries as the main mechanism of firearms. Flintlock did not need to start - it was much simpler and cheaper than the wheel. Flint in it wore out much later. Increased speed of loading weapons. This provided the opportunity to equip them with troops. Prior to this flintlock was used only for hunting weapons.
- The disadvantages of flint weapons include:
- a large number of misfires;
- gunpowder on the shelf often dampened;
- at the same time, the soldiers bombarded him with his eyes and were often mistaken with proportions;
- From the moment the trigger was pulled down to the very shot, a long time passed.
Flint weapons were introduced into the armaments of the Russian army by Peter I in 1700. They were used as much as 150 years.
Preparing for a shot
To prepare the flint device for a shot, the soldier had to (having previously hammered gunpowder and bullet into the barrel):
- fuse the trigger;
- open the shelf cover;
- clean the seed hole;
- put a small amount of gunpowder on the shelf;
- close the lid;
- put the trigger on the platoon.
There is an opinion that the design of the flintlock did not undergo major changes until it finally became an outdated device. Although advanced flintlock guns even at the beginning of the 20th century could be found among hunters from around the world.
At the end of the 18th century, the flintlock was actively improved. For example, a small wheel was installed between a spring and a flint. When fired, the flint retreated more smoothly; the spring was equipped with an earring, the bare shelf was made deep and streamlined, with the edges tightly pressed against the lid - the moisture did not fall on it, and the powder remained dry. These improvements were also applied to hunting weapons.