- History reference
- Initial development
- New round
- Fourth attempt
- What is the difference between SEZ and TOR?
- Bill: General Information
- Established definition
- Legal regime
- Administrative apparatus
- Transfer of enterprises
- Volume of investments and employment
- Opinions and suggestions
The territories of advanced development, a list of which will be given below, have become another attempt by the country's leadership to follow the Chinese path. It involves the formation of special areas, the so-called economic locomotives. Next, we consider what are the territories of advanced development in Russia and why they are needed.
In the early 90s, the government proposed a list of territories of priority development. However, as history shows, the developed programs have not been fully implemented. In 1991, a law was passed regulating the flow of foreign investment in the domestic economy. Its provisions established certain benefits for some foreign businessmen. In particular, a simplified registration procedure, reduced tax rates, a long-term lease at a low price, a visa-free regime and a reduction in customs duties were assumed. Since 1996, a special economic zone has been created in the country. So, the first special zone was formed in the Kaliningrad region, the second - in the Magadan region. For the latter, a program was developed until December 31, 2014. However, there is no success in its implementation. Also, a bill was passed on a special zone within the Baikal-Amur Railway. The fate of the program is also unknown.
Of the 17 special zones created, only 6 were successful. The most problematic were tourist areas. As noted by the general director of JSC "SEZ" Tretyakov, this was due to an incorrectly chosen method. In fact, nothing was discussed with the investor, he was not given the right to choose a place to implement the program. In addition, port zones are not actively developed. Experts suggest that this may be due to the reluctance of the regions themselves to engage in their promotion.
Despite the setbacks, the evolution of special zones continued. Currently, some SEZs may expand to the regional level. Special zones are considered to be a rather flexible instrument for attracting financial resources to the economy. During the presidency of Medvedev, a law was adopted, the provisions of which regulated the formation and functioning of territorial development zones. Thus, a new concept was introduced. ZTR is a part of the subject where favorable conditions for the activity of investors are formed. The purpose of such zones was the acceleration of the socio-economic formation of the region. Creating an enabling environment meant providing state support to investors. However, it looked under the programs somewhat more modest than it was envisaged in the 1991 draft. The management of such zones was to be carried out by a specially formed administration. Currently, ZTR is established in 20 regions.
At one of his speeches before the Federal Assembly, President Putin proposed the creation of a territory of priority development. He added a list of already existing districts with a number of localities. At the same time, the president highlighted priority areas. In particular, the Far East, which is remote from the center, deserved special attention, he said. Among the areas requiring investment, the president also named Siberia, in particular, Khakassia and the Krasnoyarsk Territory. The head of state also proposed conditions due to which the territory of advanced development will be attractive to investors. In particular, they talked about a five-year tax holiday, a preferential rate of insurance deductions, a simplified procedure for passing through customs, connecting to the power grid, and obtaining building permits. In addition, a clear program should be developed, in accordance with which the priority development territory will operate. The Far East requires the construction of related infrastructure. This task will be implemented by the relevant Fund.
What is the difference between SEZ and TOR?
The territory of advanced development, in accordance with the regulations, has a slightly different status than a special zone. It is not allowed to create such areas in one locality. As such, the territory of priority development from the SEZ has no differences. Perhaps the only difference can be considered the duration of operation. So, a special zone should act for 20 years, 12 years - a territory of priority development.
Bill: General Information
Its action is aimed at establishing a legal regime for the areas under consideration. Normatively defined measures to support enterprise investors. In addition, the Federal Law "On the territories of priority development" regulates all other relations that relate to these areas.
The territory of advanced development is the area of the Far Eastern Federal District, where special legal regimes are established for business and other activities. The formation of this zone is carried out at the expense of the federal and local budgets, as well as other sources. A special act establishes a special procedure for the formation of a territory of priority development. Primorsky Krai acquires a special status. In accordance with it, the legal status of residents and the specifics of their commercial and other activities are determined.
The Law on Advanced Development Territories establishes:
- Preferential rental rates.
- A special procedure for the use of land.
- Benefits for taxes and insurance payments.
- Special order of state control, municipal supervision.
- Preferential mode of connection to various infrastructure objects.
- Provision of special state services.
- Using the regime of free customs territory.
- The possibility of attracting in a preferential and expedited manner foreign qualified personnel.
- Use of sanitary and technical regulations following the example of the most developed OECD countries.
The law on advanced development territories establishes specific powers for state authorities. Within the districts, special divisions of the executive and other bodies (the Federal Tax Service, the Emergencies Ministry, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and so on) must operate. Due to the establishment of a special procedure, the general level of administration of the region will be raised following the example of similar zones in foreign countries.
Since 2014, a special tax regime has been introduced in the Irkutsk Region, Transbaikalia, the Far East and Buryatia. It was planned to reduce personal income tax to 7%, income tax - to ten. Moreover, during the first five years it was supposed to make the latter zero. However, in this case, experts noted some controversy. In particular, Medvedev pointed to a special tax regime, which was supposed to be aimed at stimulating non-commodity exports. A number of government measures, in turn, affected the tax on the extraction of ores of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, coal and gold. At the moment, there is no single direction. This creates certain opportunities for the activity of "influence groups".
Transfer of enterprises
After Medvedev announced the strengthening of the powers of the Ministry of the East, this department, taking the opportunity, offered to transfer to the state all the shares of the Foundation for the Development of the Baikal and Far Eastern Regions. In fact, it acts as a subsidiary of Vnesheconombank. Thus, the transfer of shares would only mean the redistribution of resources. At the same time, the ministry put forward a proposal to form additional institutions. In particular, they talked about OJSC Far East, an autonomous non-commercial organization, the Agency for the Support of Export and Investment in the FEFD, and the autonomous non-profit organization, the Agency for the Development of Labor Resources.
As a result, together with the alleged closure of the special economic zones in the Magadan region and Sovgavani in the Khabarovsk Territory, we can note the displacement of the Ministry of Economic Development from the territory of the Far Eastern Federal District. The available resources will thus be concentrated in the hands of the Ministry of Oriental Development.
Volume of investments and employment
For the development of the Far Eastern region requires about 3.3 billion rubles. This figure is set for the period up to 2020. Of this, about 170 billion p. planned to highlight for 2014. Experts noted the beginning of the struggle for funds allocated in the federal center. The government itself gives preference to the present Ministry of Eastern Development. However, some large state-owned companies probably do not want this. One of the measures planned is the employment of personnel of enterprises of single-industry towns. In particular, Avtovaz employees are meant. In addition, a deferment from the army is introduced for residents of the FEFD and citizens who have moved there.
Theoretically, as experts note, in implementing all, or at least most, of the proposed measures, the Far Eastern region can turn into a fundamentally different territory from the rest with a special administrative and tax status. Some experts even say that the FEFD can become the equivalent of Hong Kong. However, whether it will be implemented in practice is not yet clear. At present, there are not even any prerequisites for anything resembling the concept of "one state - two systems". Skeptics believe that the territory of priority development can remain in the plans, like national projects, doubling of GDP and other unimplemented programs.
Opinions and suggestions
As M. Abyzov noted, the government of the state intends to compete even with the newly formed advanced development territories in Korea, Japan, and China. At one of the meetings of the Ministry, a new concept on the organization of extrabudgetary receipt of funds in the Trans-Baikal region and the Far Eastern Federal District was presented. Scientists also spoke at the meeting. They proposed to improve the development of exploration, to form terminals and so on. One of the proposals of the researchers was perceived as almost revolutionary. In particular, scientists spoke about the creation of funds for the development of the Far Eastern Region and Siberia, in which 20-25% of the total export profits of the extracted raw materials would be concentrated without transferring them to the "center". This idea was voiced by Vladislav Inozemtsev. Later she was nominated at a government meeting Igor Slyunyaev (Minister for Regional Development).
The experts absolutely justified noted that in order to successfully accomplish the tasks set, strategically conceptual documents must be adopted. Serdy of other proposals of the Ministry of Regional Development sounded the idea of improving the transport network, for which 300 billion rubles should have been allocated. In addition, the attention of government officials was drawn to the Magadan region. So, it was proposed to build a non-freezing port on its territory (in Providence Bay or in Magadan itself). At the same time, the Ministry of Transport began to prepare the necessary amendments to the provisions of the Tax Code. They should include compensation for the costs of port operators, which will occur in the case of the construction of port checkpoints, significantly accelerating the handling of goods.
Despite previous setbacks, today the government is announcing a clear intention to complete what has been started. The law on new territories still needs some work. However, it already defines the main aspects concerning the formation and subsequent operation of these areas. Equally important is the activity of the administration directly in the Far Eastern Federal District. It should be aimed at promoting and supporting state measures. When all interested departments and ministries, entrepreneurs and citizens work together, there is a greater likelihood of success in a shorter time. The main task today, along with attracting investment, is to provide the population with work. To accomplish this task, it is necessary to create optimal labor conditions in new and existing enterprises. It may be necessary to establish additional state guarantees for the population.