- Basic concepts
- Sustained functioning
- Crisis period
- Real situation
- What does it threaten with?
- Main factors
- Causes of the problem
- What was done?
- What did it lead to?
- Main threats
Financial and economic crises often negatively affect the potential of modern industrial enterprises: investment in product and process innovations is gradually reduced or even completely disappears, fixed capital begins to wear out and grow old, scientific and technical reserves are depleted, and the majority of young and skilled workers leave their place of work . Economic indicators of economic security make it possible to understand how one company or another is prepared for such circumstances, and whether it can avoid such negative factors.
That is why you need to understand what these indicators are, and how they are provided.
It is for this reason that before every modern enterprise there arises the rather urgent task of conducting internal self-esteem, as well as predicting one’s own state in terms of:
- performance of their main production functions;
- taking various measures to protect such functions (that is, whether they can create economic indicators of the economic security of production from any manifestations of internal or external origin that affect the company's potential);
- formation of a full-fledged monitoring system of various security indicators;
- substantiation and determination of threshold values of such indicators;
- taking various measures to counter possible threats.
The main problems in providing economic indicators of economic security arise in the process of any enterprise not only during the crisis, but also when it functions in a completely stable environment, but the complex of target tasks that need to be solved varies considerably.
During this period, in the process of solving the tasks of ensuring economic security, the company should mainly focus on maintaining a normal rhythm of sales and production of its own products, preventing financial and material damage, resisting criminal manifestations and unfair competition, and also excluding the possibility of unauthorized access to existing service information or the destruction of computer databases.
The production sphere of a truly efficient enterprise, which is being modernized in a timely manner, does not constitute a source of possible disadvantage not only for the owner and his team, but also for those market agents who use the products of this company, that is, for its consumers and suppliers. Thus, it is necessary at this stage to take care that the company has relevant economic indicators of economic security, because it allows you to significantly strengthen its role in the existing market.
At the moment, the greatest danger for any enterprise is the destruction of its scientific, technical, human, technological and production potentials, which are the main factors of the life activity of any company and ensuring its basic capabilities. At the same time, if the corresponding indicators of economic security were not provided, the economic conditions become such that it is impossible to ensure the ability of the potential for further reproduction.
Resources for this enterprise can be acquired only from the results of its own activities, as well as through the use of borrowed funds, and you need to correctly understand that both of these sources of investment with the onset of crises for most companies are blocked.
Today, the overwhelming majority of domestic enterprises that operate in an unstable economic environment are by their nature unprofitable, and due to the fact that economic security indicators were not provided, they are experiencing a deep industrial slowdown, and also remain bankrupt or critical condition.
There are many different reasons that can lead to depressive development, but the most common among them are the inertia of the established production structure, physical deterioration of fixed assets, technological backwardness, and the complete absence of the main priorities of the state scientific and industrial policy. At the same time, the determination of the latter would allow doing the required restructuring of capacities, even in those economic conditions that were formed in conditions of transformations that are absolutely inefficient from the point of view of the existing sector of the economy, which do not allow enterprises to earn the money necessary for their further modernization.
What does it threaten with?
Because of their position in which the indicators of economic security and their threshold values are at an extremely low level, a truly dangerous situation is created not only for the economy, but also for social stability in society as a whole and individual regions in particular, but also for potential and the team of each individual company. After all, industrial enterprises, representing the main structural element of the economy, assume not only production functions, but also provide the means of existence for many people who are associated with them, that is, they bear some responsibility and social burden.
Due to the incomplete workload of capacities and, consequently, their inefficient use and, moreover, the continuous destruction of the previously created potential of enterprises, they begin to pose a real threat to the material and economic foundations of the life of society and the collective.
No company can be called stable if they are not provided with indicators of economic security and their threshold values, and its products cannot be claimed on the market. No enterprise engaged in the manufacture of manufacturing tools can be safe if at the moment there is an active, and at the same time, quite a long decline in the technological development of the state as a whole.
At the moment, there is a very clear tendency of how modern enterprises lose the main indicators of economic security, as well as the ability to manufacture high-tech and complex products, and this applies not only to modern developments, but also to those products that were previously produced under the conditions of stable economic development. development. This suggests that today there is a real threat for the technical re-equipment of the production apparatus of many basic sectors of the economy, including transport, metallurgy, energy, chemical industry, mining, and many others.
The main reason for this is precisely that the main indicators of economic security have been lost, and as the active part of fixed assets wears out, it has become much more difficult or impossible to completely replace them with modern domestic equipment. It should be noted that modern industry in Russia uses about 80% of domestic equipment and machines, and it is impossible to replace them with some massive import purchases from a financial point of view.
Due to the fact that at one time the necessary criteria and indicators of economic security were not identified, a large number of enterprises simply ceased their work, as they use rather complex equipment, characterized by a long production cycle. At the same time, there is no necessary volume of production capacity to compensate for the cumulative disposal of fixed production assets.
Causes of the problem
The main complex of problems, as well as the most important causes of current problems in many industrial enterprises are as follows:
- products are not in demand in foreign and domestic markets, as it has low competitiveness;
- investment resources are completely depleted;
- the financial crisis intensified, inflation, monetary circulation was destroyed, as well as various costs of the existing system of taxation of producers of commodity products, which negatively affect the work of such enterprises;
- the state does not fulfill its obligations in terms of payment of orders made for its own needs;
- inefficient methods of institutional transformations are used, which leads to the fragmentation of a large number of unified production complexes into much smaller ones, and the latter were isolated and, accordingly, led to an increase in transaction costs at each individual limit by more than 20%, which, in turn, provoked rise in price of final products;
- currency and customs barriers are applied at the borders of various CIS countries that used to be part of a single economic space.
These are only the main reasons why indicators and indicators of economic security have not been achieved by modern domestic enterprises.
All of the above was ultimately reflected in the fact that the majority of enterprises simply do not have the opportunity to really effectively and independently enter a spontaneously organized market in order to subsequently launch a new market mechanism of management.
Modern companies have unavailable payables and receivables, and the main reason that the required indicators of the enterprise’s economic security have not been achieved is the government, which often does not pay for various products that were custom-made to meet government demands. provokes a whole cascade of non-payments, going along the chain between different industries.
Consumers and subcontractors are trying to pay for barter, since they also do not have the necessary amount of finance, as a result of which funds and opportunities for replenishing working capital are lost. Ultimately, the system of indicators of economic security, as well as the production and scientific and technical potentials of modern enterprises, have been actively degrading for a long time, and highly qualified specialists are beginning to leave trying to find the best offers for using their abilities and strengths. Also, specialists are lost who are able to maintain technological equipment that has been idle for a long time and ensure the preservation of the existing infrastructure.
What was done?
One of the main tasks of the current scientific and industrial policy of the state is the implementation of a controlled reorientation of various enterprises from fulfilling exclusively government orders to market demand, but in the end it has not been implemented, as a result of which social indicators of the economic security of many modern companies remain extremely low level.
Adaptation abilities of organizations, necessary for their smooth entry into the existing market, turned out to be insufficient in the present conditions of complete refusal of state control over the economy, primarily in the area of marketing of industrial products, price control of natural monopolists, ensuring protection of the domestic market and the interests of domestic producers. products, as well as centralized resource allocation.
What did it lead to?
The loss of controllability of the economy ultimately provoked a rather sharp decline in the level of economic conditions of modern enterprises. Due to the subsequent investment and financial crisis, the indicators of the country's economic security were at an even lower level, as the various deformation processes in the reproduction structure of their capital contributions intensified. Among them are the following:
- The sharp decrease in innovation and investment activity, which does not allow to achieve the process of reproduction. The active part of fixed assets has almost completely ceased to be updated, but at the same time the process of “eating away” and depreciation is increasing. This is especially true of their active part, that is, equipment and machines, which are the main object of innovation.
- The suppression of demand and, consequently, the lack of orders and profits for most enterprises, which was further aggravated by high inflation and an active increase in the cost of materials, energy and various components. Due to the high bank rate and reduction of depreciation, even the insignificant internal resources of the enterprise do not have the necessary economic motivation to support reproduction, that is, it is more profitable to direct them towards current consumption.
- Funding from the state of various R & D in the field of high technologies has sharply reduced or even completely stopped, and the complete lack of own funds from enterprises does not allow for the rapid creation of any scientific and technical groundwork, which is the basis of technological development.
There are many causes of threats, due to which Russia's economic security indicators are falling. In many ways, they are due not only to the previous development, but also to the mistakes made in the process of the economic reforms carried out and due to the loss of controllability of the economy. In particular, this concerns the following:
- The complete absence of a specific concept, a constructed strategy and a program for further socio-economic development, where realistic goals are set.
- Constant lag in the field of development, lack of consistency and perfection of regulatory support of economic regulation.
- High risks of monetary policy of the government in the sphere of banking, as well as in the foreign exchange and stock markets. Using an inefficient tax system.
- Permanent destruction of the existing system of increasing production potential due to insufficient investment activity.
- Continuous growth of inflation, as well as the absence of a more or less normal investment climate in the current sector of the economy. Current expenses are preferred to capital detriment.
- An unfair, and at the same time completely ineffective privatization of state property and various objects of public property is used.
- Conditions are created that contribute to the appropriation and further export abroad of various financial resources.
- State control over natural monopolies is lost, and the regulatory role of the state gradually weakens in their pricing policy.
And these are only the main reasons for why the necessary indicators of the economic security of a region or an enterprise of our country cannot be achieved, and in which areas we need to act first of all.