- Specialized army unit
- What is meant and how it works?
- What information does special forces get?
- History of creation
- Special Forces: division "A". Functions
- World analogues
- About combat training
- Tasks and structure of the Russian Navy
- Internal Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia
- Features of the work of special forces in the city
- Equipment fighters special forces
- Workwear Material
- Cold weapons for special forces
The successful implementation of any military company depends on the availability of information about the forces of the enemy, his weapons and numbers. For a long time, before the beginning of a large-scale offensive, volunteer detachments were formed, which infiltrated enemy territory to collect data or to carry out sabotage. The development of armaments and the enrichment of the experience of military actions improved the methods of conducting reconnaissance and sabotage work and gave impetus to the creation of various militarized formations, each of which performs its own highly specialized task.
Specialized army unit
The fighting involves numerous human victims, the destruction of houses and buildings. Victory in wars is often very expensive. Proceeding from this and having already had a decent centuries-old combat experience, the army leadership realized the urgent need to create special professional groups to perform special tasks. So in the regular armies of different countries, a special unit appeared - army special forces.
What is meant and how it works?
The army special forces of different countries with differences in the specifics of training, armament and camouflage has one task assigned to it - the quick and silent elimination of the enemy.
To this end, it affects the most vital organs of the enemy, which excludes any possibility of rendering resistance and guarantees instant death.
Army special forces in their work uses the techniques of camouflage, having in the units of different countries certain differences. It all depends on the environment, characteristic of a particular area, weather and seasonal conditions in which you have to act. Proceeding from this, the army special forces are completed with a special uniform adapted for the terrain coloring and special means for firearms - silencers and flame arresters, allowing them to freely use it in the rear of the enemy without fear of giving themselves out with gunfire or flashes of flame.
Special forces units carry out reconnaissance work, regardless of the environmental conditions and the situation in the enemy camp. The end result is considered to be obtained information about the armament of the enemy, its strength, and the characteristics of the terrain on which further open warfare is to be conducted.
What information does special forces get?
Intelligence, which is carried out by special forces, is considered effective if it is able to provide the army leadership with the necessary information:
- Information about the enemy.
This is information about the topographic location of those objects that are to be captured, and an assessment of their degree of protection. The report should contain data on the quantity, quality and location of the enemy’s fire weapons, on the possible proximity of the reserve combat units, on the distance from them to the objects being captured, on the time and methods of approach of enemy reserves in the event of a direct combat collision.
- Terrain data
The report contains information on the patency of the territory, on the presence of natural obstacles (gorges, reservoirs) on it, on their nature and ability to overcome. It also includes data on human settlements, which must be taken into account in order to provide an imperceptible approach to the capture objects of interest.
History of creation
In order to identify, neutralize and eliminate terrorist groups, carry out sabotage and counter-terrorist combat missions behind enemy lines, the Russian Federation uses special combat units and units of special services, the Armed Forces and the police.
Special Forces of Russia has its own history.
On July 29, 1974, the “A” administration was formed in the USSR, which until 1991 belonged to the seventh directorate of the KGB. Nowadays, this unit still operates. This is a special counter-terrorism unit "A" of the FSB, known to all by the name of special forces "Alpha", recognized in the world as one of the most effective.
In 2011, the team of detachment “A” under the FSB of Russia participated in the world championship of special forces, where it won the first two places and was recognized as the best international team.
Special Forces: division "A". Functions
Its main task is the implementation of specific military force measures to search for and identify terrorist organizations, and the neutralization and further destruction of armed criminals. Spetsnaz "Alpha" is engaged in the release of hostages, negotiations with terrorists. The detachment is intended to carry out the seizure of aircraft and watercraft, ground transportation and the assault of buildings with hostages held there. Often the services of Detachment “A” are addressed in riots in prisons and colonies, since the unit is considered elite and is highly productive. This made him in demand when carrying out military operations in “hot spots” and in other situations complicated or out of control.
Such a special unit is not the only one in the world. High performance in the fight against terrorism showed American special forces. Good material support groups made it possible to conduct numerous experiments, which allowed to achieve high performance. The fighters of such detachments during the storming of fortified buildings penetrate inside suddenly for terrorists - at points that, unlike door and window openings, are not controlled by them. This significantly reduced the death rate in the American special forces.
Almost all developed countries have similar anti-terrorist units, which differ little from each other. They also perform the anti-terror function in their state and their tactics are similar.
About combat training
The execution of tasks requires from each fighter of a special-purpose squad a tremendous physical and psychological strain. This is due to the fact that the special forces detachment performs its functional tasks mainly either in the rear of the enemy, or on the terrain that is completely unsuitable for normal human life.
Being in an extreme situation, in harsh conditions, without communication with the outside world requires from each participant a special unit of physical and psychological health, fitness and moral readiness to withstand the possible loads.
About the special forces of the Airborne Forces, many films and documentaries have been filmed, serials, where it is colorfully shown how effectively the special squad works. But behind that party, visible to the audience, there is another one, which consists of everyday and tiresome instructing and training, the high demands placed on the fighters by their leadership.
The training of special forces is carried out under the supervision of experienced instructors. The task of training is to transfer knowledge to the wards and the formation of their practical skills necessary to perform combat missions. In the course of the exercises, both standard and highly specialized skills are taught to the fighters.
What does the special forces training include?
1. Standard skills:
- hand-to-hand combat;
- fire, psychological and general physical training.
2. Highly specialized knowledge and practical skills:
- silent movement in the rear of the enemy, which includes the ability to covertly implement the overcoming of water and engineering barriers, swamps, navigate the terrain at night;
- tasks for the observation and collection of information in urban environments and human settlements;
- effective camouflage: the form of special forces is selected for the fighters depending on the conditions of the terrain on which the work is being performed - these can be mountains, forests, desert, marshland or the surface covered with snow;
- orienteering both with and without a topographic map, the ability to notice and distinguish traces;
- the ability to carry out radio intelligence and use other means of technology for this purpose;
- survival skills in difficult conditions for the human body;
- psychological training and obtaining the knowledge necessary for the provision of urgent medical assistance.
Tasks and structure of the Russian Navy
During the martial law of the maritime special forces of the Russian Federation is engaged in:
- the mining of ships, paramilitary naval bases and hydraulic structures of the enemy;
- search and further physical destruction of the enemy’s weapons intended for a nuclear attack, and points operating in their operational control;
- the discovery in the coastal zone of other objects of the enemy, accumulations of manpower;
- providing amphibious activities in the coastal zone;
- guidance and adjustment of aviation and ship artillery strikes on the identified enemy forces.
In peacetime, Russian naval special forces are engaged in the fight against terrorism and the exchange of experience with other special forces.
The staff of the sea special squad includes 124 people - 56 of them are fighters, the rest are technical personnel. The fighters in the detachment are divided into units and operate autonomously. Each of these groups consists of 12 people. They are divided into groups of 6 people: an officer, a midshipman and four sailors.
Marine special forces of the Russian Federation is represented by three units, each of which performs its task:
- The first detachment is designed to destroy enemy objects located on land. The tactics of the detachment's action consists in an imperceptible underwater approach to the planned targets of the enemy with the further implementation of sabotage. The fighters act as divers and act on the spot as saboteurs of the Main Intelligence Directorate.
- The second squad is engaged in intelligence work.
- The third detachment of naval special forces carries out underwater mining of ships, naval bases, manpower and other important enemy targets. Fighters of the detachment train especially hard for the role of combat divers, since they operate mainly not on land, but under water - they conduct sabotage work and make attacks.
Internal Troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia
In the Russian Federation, these troops are and are subject to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Following the law “On Internal Troops”, special forces of the VV carries out the tasks:
1. In peacetime:
- provide public order;
- carry out protection of state-important objects and goods during transportation;
- release the hostages;
- help other divisions of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the fight against crime.
2. In wartime and in emergency mode, according to a certain law “On Internal Troops”, special forces of the Air Force receive additional duties - providing assistance to border security agencies in ensuring territorial defense and security of the country, protecting state borders.
Features of the work of special forces in the city
To perform a combat mission in populated areas, Russian special forces are using equipment:
- overcoming obstacles;
- hidden inspection of the area;
- silent entry into the building;
- quick and effective assault on buildings;
- stripping captured buildings.
1. Overcoming obstacles in urban areas. Work is performed after a thorough examination of the situation. Before overcoming the obstacle that has arisen on the way, special forces soldiers inspect the area for the possible presence of a hidden enemy. Before overcoming the wall, its opposite part is examined.
2. Inspection of urban areas. Buildings are ideal for this task, observation is recommended to be conducted because of their corners. The main thing is to do it carefully, without revealing yourself with a weapon or equipment.
3. When entering the building, window openings are particularly dangerous, to move under which is necessary at a fast pace and crouching low. The fighter must be below the level of the window cut. Window openings in semi-basements are recommended to step over.
4. During the assault, special forces advance along the walls, and also involves passing through them, using faults and cracks. Doorways are overcome by throwing under the fire cover of the partner. Throw should be swift and immediately aimed at the shelter.
The special forces of Russia, as special subdivisions of other countries, while overcoming open terrain, use smoke curtains, in addition to fire cover. In this case, jumps are made from one shelter to another in the event that between them there is a small distance. Such advancement is carried out by a group with a mandatory interval of at least ten steps between fighters. Such a distance will prevent possible fire damage.
During the assault, American special forces use means that allow them to destroy walls in a seized building in places that are not controlled by armed criminals. The unexpected appearance of spetsnaz soldiers in the hole formed in the wall acts on the terrorists overwhelming - the effect of surprise works. A moderate explosion, knocking bricks and cinder blocks strictly along a specific contour, stuns an enemy who is unprepared for such an assault.
In the Russian special forces, the assault on the building occurs immediately after throwing a grenade into the window opening. There is a drawback in this tactic of capture - the enemy can quickly react and throw it back. In this case, there is a high risk of shrapnel damage from its own exploding shell.
5. Clearing the captured structure. After the assault the building is subject to thorough inspection. To this end, one fighter takes a firing position outside the doorway and covers the group. Rooms that have been tested, marked with a symbol. The special forces are clearing, moving up the stairs from top to bottom. This allows you to "squeeze" the enemy to the lower floors, where it is easier to destroy or push out into the street and hold. It is undesirable to clean the bottom-up. This will give the enemy a chance to firmly gain a foothold on the upper floors or to leave on the roofs of nearby buildings.
Equipment fighters special forces
According to the season, the special forces uniform is winter and summer. Depending on the destination, special division equipment is divided into three types:
- Field form. Used to perform combat missions, training and duty. It is also intended to be worn during a war or state of emergency. This type of clothing has the highest demands.
- Parade uniform. It is intended for fighters during their stay at solemn state events: carrying a guard of honor, receiving awards. Also used during parades, holidays and weekends.
- Casual form. It is used in all other cases.
The main requirements for the material from which the clothing of the divisions is made are the ability to provide safety, high ergonomics and protection. For the implementation of the special forces masking, a special fabric is produced having the corresponding pattern. In each country, a pattern is selected for the fabric from which special equipment is sewn, for a specific characteristic type of terrain.
Russian special forces use the “Surpat” coloring, which takes into account the typical characteristics of the national territory.
In addition to clothing, the form of special units includes weapons, means of providing protection, navigation, life support, an individual first-aid kit and special elements are attached to it.
Cold weapons for special forces
In their activities, Russian special forces often face situations in which they cannot do without the use of a knife. During the descent from the wall of the house or from a helicopter, you can get entangled in ropes and parachute straps; during the seizure of vehicles, sometimes there is a need to cut the jammed seat belts. In such situations, the knife is a must. It is erroneous to assume that cold weapons are assumed for all the power structures of the Russian Federation - airborne troops, riot police or marines. The right to wear and use during special operations combat knives have only special forces. These are mainly blades that do not exceed 200 mm in length and 60 mm in width.
A knife of army special forces in skilled hands makes it possible to inflict terrible wounds on the enemy. In the production of combat knives for special forces, very durable and high-quality steel is used.
Naval special forces in their activities often use a knife, which is also called “Intelligence”. For the manufacture of such a knife is taken stainless steel. Blade width - 60 mm, length - 300 mm. The knife is equipped with a protective guard, which makes it easier for them to strike the enemy.
The second most popular type of cold weapon among the fighters of this special unit is the Qatran blade. It is universal because it can be used both as a tool and as a weapon. As a tool, this knife, thanks to the transverse groove at its base, is successfully used for bending and breaking the wire. The blade is equipped with double sharpening - regular and sawtooth - on the butt side. Plastic is used for the manufacture of handles and scabs. Fixing the knife in the sheath is done with the help of snap fastenings of the guard. “Katran” is equipped with an additional retainer in the form of a rubber ring, which prevents the blade from slipping out of the scabbard, which is undesirable for a fighter during a special operation.
Today, the Gyurza knife has been officially accepted for supply by FSB special forces. His blade has a one-and-a-half sharpening. A serreitor on the butt side improves the quality of military weapons and makes it possible to use them to perform related "peaceful" tasks - it is very convenient for them to cut ropes, cables, and use them as a saw.
The history of the use of special forces in the performance of intelligence and sabotage activities in the rear of the enemy, in the fight against terrorists and especially dangerous criminals proved the urgent need to use combat knives. Extensive experience in performing specific specific tasks was taken into account when selecting cold weapons for modern army units.